Pesticides

 

Overviewcontentphoto_pesticides

Pesticides are chemical substances used to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate undesirable organisms such as weeds or harmful insects. The chemical control of pests has facilitated the industrialization of agriculture and has helped the United States reap a surplus of agricultural products. Used properly, pesticides by definition are inherently toxic to certain organisms. This inherent toxicity requires careful regulation to insure the safety of the public, the food supply, and the environment. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the primary entity charged with regulation of pesticides, although it works in conjunction with state agencies. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) establishes the general system of federal pesticide regulation, and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) establishes the system to govern pesticides in food and feed. States are generally permitted to enact legislation that restricts pesticide use more than federal law requires. This overview focuses on FIFRA and FFDCA as amended by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA). Read the full overview

 Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.


Major Statutes

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 U.S.C. §§ 136-136y
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301-399i
Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. § 1531-1544
Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. § 1251-1388

Regulations

Pesticide Programs , 40 C.F.R. §§ 150-180
Federal Register Rules on Pesticides Open for Comment

Case Law

Case Law Index for Pesticide Regulation

Administrative Law Decisions

Environmental Appeals Board
FIFRA Decisions (EPA, Environmental Appeals Board)
Administrative Law Judge Decisions – “FIFRA” (EPA)
Regional Judicial Officer Decisions on FIFRA (EPA)
Regional Judicial Officers Information (EPA)

Center Research Publications

Preemption under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (Hartman & Rollins, 2021)
FIFRA: Steps to Pesticide Registration (Vance & Rollins, 2020)
50-State Survey: Landowner Liability for Spray Drift (Lashmet, 2020)
The Deal with Dicamba Series
United States Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Orders EPA to Ban Chlorpyrifos (Wilkerson & E. Rumley, 2018)
Potential Spray Drift Damage: What Steps to Take? (Lashmet, 2017)
Approval of Pesticides (R. Rumley, 2012)
Environmental Law: Federal Laws That Affect Agriculture – PowerPoint Presentation (Springsteen, 2009)
2005 Environmental Law Update (Feitshans, 2006)
Supreme Court Considers Preemption of State Law Claims Under the FIFRA (Pittman, 2005)

Congressional Research Service Reports

Reports– published and made available by CRS beginning in 2017
Subjects- published by CRS and made available by NALC until 2018:

Food Safety
Environmental Issues

Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Pesticides:

Biotechnology
Corporate Farming
Environmental Issues
Food and Drug Law 
Fruits and Vegetables – Perishable Agricultural Commodities
Pesticides, Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, Fertilizers
Sustainable and Organic Farming
Torts, Insurance

Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Pesticide Record Keeping
Pesticide Data Program
Pesticide Residues
Directive: Pesticide Residue Testing for Grain (10/24/2019)
Fumigation Handbook (9/04/2006)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Pesticide Illness and Injury Surveillance
Guidance for Building a State-Based Pesticide Poisoning Surveillance Program
Toxic Substance List
Chemical Agents

Economic Research Service (ERS)

Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008 (Fernandez-Cornejo et al., 2014)
Topic: Fertilizers and Pesticides
Genetically Engineered Plants for Pest Management in U.S. Agriculture: Farm-Level Effects (Fernandez-Cornejo & McBride, 1999)
Pest Management
Publications: Fertilizers & Pesticides

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Pesticides
Pesticide Topics
Biopesticides
Pesticide Registration
TRI Data and Tools
Regulatory Information by Topic: Pesticides
Occupational Pesticide Safety and Health
Pesticide Worker Protection Standard “How to Comply” Manual
Definition of Pesticide Handler Under the Worker Protection Standard
Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)
Protect Yourself from Pesticides: Guide for Pesticide Handlers
Agriculture: Laws and Regulations that Apply to your Agricultural Operation by Farm Activity
How EPA Protects Workers from Pesticide Risk
Pesticide Science and Assessing Pesticide Risks
Pest Control and Pesticide Safety for Consumers
Ingredients Used in Pesticide Products
Food and Pesticides
Pesticide Type Index
Pesticide Contracts and Organizational Information
How to Get Certified as a Pesticide Applicator

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Pesticides
Chemical, Metals, Natural Toxins & Pesticides Guidance Documents & Regulations
Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Reports and Data
Chemical Hazards
Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM)
Guidance for Industry: Channels of Trade Policy for Commodities With Residues of Pesticide Chemicals
Total Diet Study

Congressional Resources

Reports on Pesticides (General Accounting Office)
U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works
U.S. House Agriculture Committee
U.S. House Natural Resources Committee

Other Federal Resources

Pesticide Management and Coordination (Forest Service)
Pest Management (Cooperative State Research Education and Extension)
Pest Management Policy (Natural Resources Conservation Service)
Contaminant Issues: Pesticides (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
Pesticide Registration and Endangered Species Act Consultations(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
Pesticides (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Pesticide Illness & Injury Surveillance (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
USDA Regional IPM Centers

International Resources

Pest & Pesticide Management (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – FAO)
International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (FAO)
Chemical Safety: Pesticides (World Health Organization)
Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO)

Pesticides (Codex Alimentarius)

Health and Safety Executive: Pesticides

Publications

Insect Control Guide for Agronomic Crops (Catchot, 2021)
Pesticide Safety for the Homeowner (Delaplane, 2017)
Insecticide Basics for the Pest Management Professional (Suiter & Scharf, 2015)
Disease Management in the Home Vegetable Garden (Langston & Eaker, 2013)
What you need to know about Protecting Yourself When Using Pesticides (Penn. State University, 2013)
National Worker Safety Training Handbook: Pesticide Safety for Agricultural Workers (NASDA, 2008)
National Pesticide Applicator Certification Core Manual (National Association of State Departments of Agriculture Research Foundation)
Grower’s Handbook of Pesticide Laws and Regulations (San Benito County Agric. Comm’r, 2007)
Pesticide Laws and Regulations (NE Extension, 2007)
Pesticides and Genetic Drift: Alternative Property Rights Scenarios (CHOICES, Conner, 2003)
Pesticides and the Law (Purdue Cooperative Extension Service, 2001)
Record Keeping Requirements for Private and Commercial Applicators (MA Extension, 2001)
Pesticide Laws and Regulations (U. MO Columbia, Fishel, revised 2021)
Pesticides and Property Rights (Property and Environment Research Center, Meiners and Morriss)
Laws and Regulations Study Guide (California Department of Pesticide Regulation)

Additional Resources

Pesticides Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)
American Association of Pesticide Safety Educators
Entomological Society of America
Pesticide Environmental Stewardship
Pesticide Safety and Education (Oregon St. U.)
The Bureau of Plant Industry (Miss. Dept. of Ag.)
Pesticide Safety Education Program Fact Sheets (U. IL Extension)
Compendium of Pesticide Common Names
National Pesticide Information Center
Association of American Pesticide Control Officials
Pesticide Information Profiles (EXTOXNET)
Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems
The Pesticide Stewardship Alliance (TPSA)
WSU Urban IPM and Pesticide Safety Education Program
Worker Protection Standard (PA St. U.)

Pesticide Educational Resources Collaborative (PERC)

WPS Respirator Resources
How to Comply with the 2015 Revised Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides-What Owners and Employers Need to KnowManual: How to Comply with the 2015 Revised Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides
Updated WPS Posters for “Central Posting” Areas and Certain Decontamination Sites
Overview of Pesticide Regulations
Project Status
Pesticide Handlers
Agriculture Workers
Crop Advisers
Labor Contractors
Definitions of Common Terms