Marketing Orders



Marketing orders and agreements are legal instruments issued by the USDA Secretary that are designed to stabilize market conditions for certain agricultural commodities by regulating the handling of those commodities in interstate or foreign commerce.    Read the full overview

 Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.

Major Statutes

Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act – Ch. 26 Agricultural Adjustment, 7 U.S.C. §§ 601-659

Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act – Ch. 26A Agricultural Marketing Agreements, 7 U.S.C. §§ 671-674


New Marketing Agreements and Orders: Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, 7 C.F.R. Parts 900-999

New Marketing Agreements and Orders: Milk, 7 C.F.R. Parts 1000-1199

New Marketing Agreements and Orders: Miscellaneous Commodities, 7 C.F.R. Parts 1200-1291

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: Agriculture

Federal Register Rules Open for Comment


Case Law

Case Law Index for Marketing Orders

Administrative Law Decisions

Office of Administrative Law Judges

USDA National Appeals Division

Center published USDA Judicial Officer’s Decisions

Congressional Research Service Reports

Reports– published and made available by CRS beginning in 2017

Subjects- published by CRS and made available by NALC until 2018:


Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Marketing Orders :

Marketing Boards, Marketing Orders, Marketing Production, Marketing Quota
Administrative Law (Federal and State Farm Programs)
Fruits and Vegetables – Perishable Agricultural Commodities

Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Commodity Procurement
Small Business Guide to Marketing Orders
Marketing Orders (ALL)
Dairy Marketing Orders
Specialty Crop Marketing Orders & Agreements
Fruit and Vegetable Programs (2006)
Specialty Crops Marketing Orders and Agreements
How to Create a Marketing Order
Marketing Order Commodity Index
Dairy Programs
Federal Milk Marketing Orders
Federal Milk Marketing Order National Hearings
Federal Milk Marketing Order Statistics
Map of Federal Milk Marketing Order Areas
Map of Federal Milk Marketing Order Class I Price Structure
Publication: Impacts of NASS Nonfat Dry Milk on Price and Sales Volume Revisions on Federal Order Prices (2007)

Economic Research Service (ERS)

Dairy Policy Overview
Farm and Commodity Policy Overview
Fruit and Tree Nut Policy Overview
Vegetables and Pulses Policy Overview
Federal Marketing Orders and Federal Research and Promotion Programs: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation (Neff, 1995)
Publications: Milk Pricing in the United States (Manchester, 2001)
Agriculture Information Bulletin No. (AIB-761): Milk Pricing in the United States, 2007

Congressional Resources

Reports on Marketing Orders (Government Accountability Office, GAO)

Milk Marketing Orders: Option for Change (GAO, 1988)

The Role of Marketing Orders in Establishing and Maintaining Orderly Market Conditions (GAO, Comptroller General, 1985)

Additional Resources

Milk Marketing Order Statistics

Marketing Orders Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)

Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Agreements

California Department of Food and Agriculture Marketing Act

California Department of Food and Agriculture Marketing Order Agreements

Agricultural Marketing Resource Center: Overview of Marketing Agreements


Milk Marketing Orders: Winners and Losers (Chouinard, 2005)

Milk Marketing Orders and Sanitation Regulation: Re-evaluating Marketing Orders’ Welfare Effects (Balagtas, 2004)

Marketing Order Impact on the Organic Sector: Almonds, Kiwifruit, and Winter Pears (Carman, 2004)

Mandated Marketing Programs for California Commodities (Lee, 1996)

Recommended Readings

Effects of Milk Marketing Order Regulation on the Share of Fluid-Grade Milk in the United States, Balagtas et al., 89 Am. J. of Ag. Econ., April, 2007

Federal Marketing Orders for Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, and Specialty Crops, Powers (ERS, Rep. No. 629, 1990)

Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Orders in the United States, 1937-1987, a Review, French (International Society for Horticultural Science, 1988)

Federal Marketing Orders: Their History and Purpose, Halloran (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1994)

History of Milk Marketing Orders and Current Implications to Dairy Producers and Industry, Griffith (University of Tennessee Extension)

How Government Policies and Regulations Can Affect Dietary Choices