Research Articles

Our research publications are a vital part of the Center’s mission to conduct objective, timely, and non-partisan research into agricultural and food law issues and to provide that scholarship to the agricultural and food law communities.  Information provided in these articles and presentations is not intended to be taken as legal advice nor as a substitute for qualified legal counsel. Note: All articles and presentations are published in ADA-compliant PDF format and should be viewed in the latest Adobe Acrobat Reader to enjoy the advanced search and accessibility features.    Click here for free download.

Index of Research Publications

Administrative Law

USDA’s National Appeals Division Procedures and Practice (Krub, Urbanek; 2019)

Developments in Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, 2005-2006 — Agriculture (Pittman; 2006)

Statutory Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies in Actions Against the USDA (Kelley; 2004)

Dealing with USDA: Federal Administrative Law Basics (Kelley; 2002)

Attorney’s Fee Awards for Unreasonable Government Conduct: Notes on EAJA (Kelley; 2004)

USDA National Appeals Division: Outline of Rules of Procedure (Kelley; 2003)

Agricultural Leases/Contracts

Force Majeure and Other Contractual Defenses during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Snowden et al; 2020)

Ranchers’ Agricultural Leasing Handbook: Grazing, Hunting, & Livestock Leases (Lashmet et al.; 2016, updated 2023)

Bull Leasing Contracts (Rumley; 2011)

Written Sugarcane Leases: Protecting the Interests of the Farmer and Landowner (Rumley & Thomas; 2011)

Agricultural Contracts and the Leasing of Land – PowerPoint Presentation (Rumley; 2009)

Agricultural Contracting (R. Rumley; 2012)


Ten Legal Issues for Farm Stay Operators  (Kirk Hall, Wood; 2020)

Recent Agritourism Litigation in the United States  (Kirk Hall, Essman; 2020)

Reducing Risk in Agritourism: Factsheet Series  (Kirk Hall, Bachelor; 2019)

Using Alternative Enterprises and Recreational Development to Bolster Farm Incomes — Workbook  (R. Rumley, Tullos; 2012)

Forestry Workbook – Managing Legal Risk for   Alternative Uses of Forestland  (R. Rumley, Hatch, Walkingstick, E. Rumley, McPeake; 2012)

The Nature of Agritourism: Legal Risk Management for Agritourism Operators – PowerPoint Presentation (Mirus; 2009)

States’ Agritourism Statutes (Mirus; 2008)

Planting the Seeds for a New Industry in Arkansas: Agritourism (Pittman; 2006)

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

States’ Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Statutes (Rumley; 2009)  

Animal Feeding Operations

Clarifying NPDES Requirements for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (Centner; 2007)

Government Oversight of Animal Feeding Operations (Centner; 2003)  

Animal Welfare

Agriculture and the ADA: Service Animals (Brown & E. Rumley; 2019)

The Veterinary Feed Directive Rules for Veterinarians: A Practical Guide for the Practicing Veterinarian (Roasa; 2017)

Legal Issues in Animal Agriculture: Regulating Living Space (E. Rumley)

Legal Issues in Animal Agriculture: Medication, Identification and Accommodations (E. Rumley; 2010)

States’ Farm Animal Confinement Statutes (Springsteen; 2009)

States’ Animal Cruelty Statutes (Springsteen; 2008)

Animal Cruelty Statutes – A State-By-State Analysis (Springsteen; 2008)  

Animal Identification and Tracing

Cattle Traceability: Potential Legal Implications (Rumley & Dowell; 2018)

States’ Animal Identification Statutes (E. Rumley; 2010)

Approaching Liability with Animal Identification (Pendergrass; 2007)

A Comparison of Animal Identification Programs (Pendergrass; 2007)

Varying State Approaches to Confidentiality with Premises and Animal Identification Systems(Pendergrass; 2007)

State Identification Statutes: Confidentiality Provisions Relating to Animal and Premises Identification (Pendergrass; 2007)

Animal Identification and the Next Farm Bill (O’Brien; 2006)

Legal Issues in Developing a National Plan for Animal Identification (Roberts and Pittman; 2004)


Aquaculture and the Lacey Act — Research Article (Rumley; 2010)


Facing Farm Financial Stress: An Overview of the Bankruptcy Option (Series) (Kirk Hall et al; 2020)

Issue Brief: Potential Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Changes (Mitchell & E. Rumley; 2019)

Bankruptcy Reform and Family Farmers: Correcting the Disposable Income Problem (Schneider; 2006)

Who Gets the Check: Determining When Federal Farm Program Payments Are Property of the Bankruptcy Estate (Schneider; 2006)

Are You a Debt Relief Agency? You Might Be Surprised and You Should Be Concerned (Schneider; 2006)

An Introduction to Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Restructuring the Family Farm (Schneider; 2005)

Bankruptcy Reform: Changes to Chapter 12 – Adjustment of Debts for a Family Farmer (Schneider; 2005)

Bankruptcy Reform and Family Farmers (Schneider; 2005)

Determining the Proper “Cramdown” Rate of Interest in Agricultural Bankruptcies Post-Till v. SCS Credit Corp. (Pittman; 2004)

Agricultural Zoning, Bankruptcy and the Rural Homestead (Laurence; 2003)

Husband and Wife Farmers in Ag Bankruptcy: “Tools of the Trade” Exemption (Pittman; 2002)  


Plant Biotechnology Law After Geertson Seed Farms: Potential Impacts on Regulation, Liability, and Coexistence Measures (Peck; 2008)

Do European Union Non-Tariff Barriers Create Economic Nuisances in the United States?  (Redick and Adrian; 2005)

Revising Seed Purity Laws to Account for the Adventitious Presence of Genetically Modified Varieties: A First Step Towards Coexistence (Endres; 2005)

Farmers’ Guide to GMOs (Moeller and Sligh; 2005)

The War on GMOs:  A Report from the Front (Harbison; 2004)

Jack and the Beanstalk: Property Rights in Genetically Modified Plants (Busch; 2004)

JEM Ag Supply v. Pioneer Hi-Bred Internat’l: Its Meaning and Significance (Roberts; 2003)

Legal Liability Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology (Kershen; 2002)

Business Organizations/Cooperatives

States’ Agricultural Cooperative Formation (NALC Staff; 2022)

Navigating Your Legal Duties: A Guide for Agricultural Cooperative Directors (Scott & Traxinger; 2021)

Business Organizations Forms and Filing Information (NALC Research Staff; 2019)

Considerations for Operating Agreements (Ferrell; 2019)

A Snapshot of LLCs and Farming: How Farm Businesses have implemented the Limited Liability Company Structure in the Midwestern United States (Bachelor & Kirk Hall; 2019)

The Farmer’s Legal Guide to Producer Marketing Associations (O’Brien, Hamilton & Luedeman; 2005)

Legal and Policy Considerations of Investor-Friendly Cooperatives (O’Brien; 2005)

Organizational and Ownership Options Available for Agricultural Enterprises (Goforth; 2002)

Introduction to Federal Securities Laws (Goforth; 2004)  

Clean Water Act

Waters of the United States: Timeline of Definitions (Rollins; 2020)

Agricultural Nutrients and Water Quality: Recent Litigation in the United States (Essman & Hivick; 2020)

Mandatory Legal Approaches to Agricultural Nutrient Management (Essman & Brown; last updated 2020)

State Legal Approaches to Reducing Water Quality Impacts from the Use of Agricultural Nutrients on Farmland (Hall & Essman; 2019)

Issue Brief: Conduit Theory Under the Clean Water Act (Barker & R. Rumley; 2019)

Water Quality Credit Trading: A Primer of Background Material (Jackson; 2010)

The Clean Water Act: Current Status and Potential Changes (R. Rumley; 2010)

The Clean Water Authority Restoration Act: A Primer of Background Material (Goeringer & R. Rumley; 2009)

Checkoff Programs

Legal Checkup on Checkoffs: “Redirection” and Producer Refunds Under the Beef Checkoff (Pittman; 2020)

Beef, Beans & the First Amendment: Disappearing Sovereignty for State Beef Councils and Soybean Boards? (Pittman; 2017)

Soybean Checkoff Dollars & USDA “Redirection”: Compatible with Federal Law? (Pittman; 2017)

Beef Checkoff Dollars & USDA “Redirection”: Compatible with Federal Law? (Pittman; 2017)

Commercial Transactions

State Grain Grading Laws & Regulations (DiGiulio, R. Rumley & E. Rumley; 2019)

Factsheet: Arkansas Grain Warehouse Laws (Fritts & Rumley; 2015)

Factsheet: Grain Warehouse Laws (Fritts & Rumley; 2015)

State Regulation of Grain Sales and Storage (Fritts & Rumley; 2015)

Hedge to Arrive Contracts: Futures or Forwards (Gokhalé; 2005)

Commercial Law in the United States Relating to Bailments (Kershen; 2004)

Corporate Farming and Land Ownership Laws

Foreign Ownership of Agricultural Land: A Legislative Roadmap (Brown, 2023)

Market Concentration, Horizontal Consolidation, and Vertical Integration in the Hog and Cattle Industries:  Taking Stock of the Road Ahead (Pittman; 2005)

The Constitutionality of Corporate Farming Laws in the Eighth Circuit (Pittman; 2004)

Disaster Assistance/Crop Insurance

Preparing for a Crop Insurance Audit (Kirk Hall & Zoller; 2020)

 A Practitioner’s Guide to the Litigation of Federally Reinsured Crop Insurance Claims (Ballard; 2012)

Crop Insurance Arbitration:  What is Arbitration, When is it Required, and How Does it Work? (Ballard; 2012)

Prevented Planting Crop Insurance: Overview, Drought, and Excessive Moisture (Ballard; 2012)

The Federal Crop Insurance Program: Administration, Structure, and Operation (Ballard; 2012)

Filing a Crop  Insurance Claim: An Overview for Producers (Ballard;2012)

FCIC Standard Reinsurance Agreement (Fancher; 2002)

Scope of the Federal Crop Insurance Arbitration Clause (Fancher; 2002)  

Environmental Law

The National Agricultural Law Center’s Endangered Species Act Manual: A Practical Guide to the ESA for Agricultural Producers (Rollins, 2023)

Environmental Law: Federal Laws That Affect Agriculture – PowerPoint Presentation (Springsteen; 2009)

2005 Environmental Law Update (Feitshans; 2006)

Managing Carbon in a World Economy: The Role of American Agriculture (Garry; 2005)

Biodiversity and Law: Culture of Agriculture and Nature of Nature Conservation (Harbison; 2004)

Biodiversity and the Law of Nature Conservation in Great Britain (Harbison; 2004)

Estate Planning and Taxation

Keeping Farmland in the Family (Moore & Kirk Hall, 2023)

Long-Term Care and the Farm (Moore, 2023)

Planning for the Future of Your Farm (Hall et al; 2022)

Heirs Property in Arkansas (R. Rumley & Keith; 2021)

Intestate Succession and Agriculture (Mitchell & R. Rumley; 2020)

Differential Tax Assessment of Agricultural Lands (Bachelor & Kirk Hall; 2019)

Agricultural Estate Planning (R. Rumley; 2011)

An Overview of Special Use Valuation Under 26 U.S.C.A. § 2032A (Rumley; 2011)

Farm Transition Planning – PowerPoint Presentation (Springsteen; 2010)

Proper Handling of Disaster Payments, Crop Insurance and Livestock Sold (McEowen; 2003)

Long-Term Health Care a Part of Your Farm Estate Plan? (McEowen; 2003)  

Family and Community

Farm Stress and Mental Health: Where Can You Turn? (Cato, Vehige and Mathis; 2020)

Family Law Issues in Agriculture: Factsheet Series (Rincker; 2019)

Farm Programs/Farm Bill Resources

Farm Bill Conservation Programs: Swampbuster and Sodbuster (Snowden & Rollins; 2020)

World Trade Organization and the Commodity Title of the Next Farm Bill: A Practitioner’s View (O’Brien; 2006)

Conservation Security Program and Grassland Reserve Program (Pittman; 2003)

Direct Payments and Counter-Cyclical Payments Under 2002 Farm Bill (Pittman; 2003)

Introduction to Federal Farm Program Payment Limitations (Kelley; 2002)  

Financials: Finance, Lending & Cryptoassets

Blockchain and Bitcoin Basics: Applicability to Agriculture (Goforth; 2021)

Creating and Using Cryptoassets: Regulatory Implications (Goforth; 2021)

Blockchain Initiatives and Operations Focusing on Agriculture (Goforth; 2021)

Financing the Farm: A Law Bulletin Series on Legal Arrangements for Farm Financing (Kirk Hall & Bachelor; 2019)

Updated Statutory Agricultural Lien Charts (Springsteen & Fiser; 2009)

Rabobank Offer to Purchase FCS of America (O’Brien; 2004)

Enforcement of Money Judgments Across Indian Reservation Boundaries (Laurence; 2002)

Statutory Ag Liens Under Revised Article 9 (Schneider; 2002)  

Food Labeling

The Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard (Caracciolo; 2022)

Issue Brief: The Regulation of Cell-Cultured Meat (Rollins, Rumley; 2019)

Plant Based “Milk” Labeling (Barker, Rumley; 2018)

Issue Brief: Petition for Policy Change in FSIS’ “Product of U.S.A.” Label (Lizano, Rumley; 2018)

State-Level Catfish Labeling Laws (Springsteen; 2008)

Definition of “Beer” in terms of ABV or ABW, by State (Alexander & Pittman; 2018)

Food Safety

Produce Safety Rule Highlights (Copper, Caracciolo; 2021)

Meat Processing Laws in the United States (E. Rumley, Wilkerson et al; 2020)

“Cottage Food” Laws (Hall; 2019)

FSMA Animal Food Rule – Current Good Manufacturing Practice, Hazard Analysis, and Risk-Based Preventive Control (Dillard; 2017)

3rd Party Food Safety Audits (Seideman & Rainey; 2012)

European Union Food Law Update – IV (Leibovitch; 2009)

United States Food Law Update – III (Roberts; 2007)

European Union Food Law Update – III (Coutrelis; 2007)

Introduction to Food Law in the People’s Republic of China (Roberts; 2007)

Role of Regulation in Minimizing Terrorist Threats Against the Food Supply: Information, Incentives, and Penalties (Roberts; 2007)

From the Farm to the Factory: An Overview of the American and European Approaches to Regulation of the Beef Industry (Houston; 2006)

Is a Picture Worth More Than 1,000 Words? The Fourth Amendment and the FDA’s Authority to Take Photographs Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Fortin; 2006)

United States Food Law Update – II (Roberts; 2006)

European Union Food Law Update – II (Coutrelis; 2006)

United States Food Law Update (Roberts and Alsbrook; 2005)

European Union Food Law Update (Coutrelis; 2005)

Anatomy of the Government’s Role in the Recall of Unsafe Food Products (Roberts; 2004)

Legal Issues in Developing a National Plan for Animal Identification (Roberts; 2004)

International Trade

Nation-Specific Risk Tolerance in the WTO:  US-Continued Suspension of Obligations in the EC-Hormones Dispute (Peck; 2009)

International Legal Issues COncerning Animal Cloning and Nanotechnology — More of the Same or Are “The Times They Are A-Changin'”? (Roberts; 2008)

Guide to Compliance with the Japanese Positive List (Jones; 2008)

Summary of the WTO Interim Report in EC-Biotech (Peck; 2006)

World Trade Organization and the Commodity Title of the Next Farm Bill: A Practitioner’s View (O’Brien; 2006)  


Proposed Changes for Child Labor in Agriculture (Rumley; 2011)

Handbook of Laws and Regulations Affecting Arkansas Farm Employers and Employees (Looney & Copeland; 2010)

Agricultural Labor: An Employer’s Obligations and Responsibilities – PowerPoint Presentation (Springsteen; 2009)  

Landowner Liability

Five Strands: A Landowner’s Guide to Fence Law in Texas (Lashmet et al; 2022)

States’ Noxious Weed Laws (Kirk Hall & Hivick; 2021)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (“UAV”) Laws: Typical Provisions (Earich & R. Rumley; 2020)

Equine Activity Statutes (Rollins & E. Rumley; 2019)

UAVs and the Law (R. Rumley; 2014)

States’ “Fence Law” Statutes (R. Rumley)

Recreational Access to Private Lands: Liability Problems and Solutions (Copeland; 2009)

Legal Risk Management: Protecting Your Farm and Family – PowerPoint Presentation (Mirus; 2009)

States’ Recreational Use Statutes (Springsteen & Rumley; 2008)

The Constitutionality of Partition Fence Statutes in the Midwest (Molloy & Reid; 2004)  

Recreational Use of Private Lands: Associated Legal Issues (McEowen; 2003)  

 Livestock Marketing/Marketing Orders

Issue Brief: Organization for Competitive Markets Seeks Judicial Review of USDA’s GIPSA Rule Withdrawal (Lizano, E. Rumley; 2018)

Outline of GIPSA’s Proposed Rule Changes (Workshop Handout) (Center Staff; 2010)

GIPSA’s Proposed Rule Changes: What Are They? How Might They Affect You? How Can You Affect Them – PowerPoint Presentation (Center Staff; 2010)

GIPSA’s Proposed Rule Changes: A Presentation for Livestock and Poultry Producers – Webinar Recording (Center Staff; 2010)

Farmer’s Legal Guide to Production Contracts (Hamilton; 2010)

State Regulation of Production Contracts (Peck; 2006)

Market Concentration, Horizontal Consolidation, and Vertical Integration in the Hog and Cattle Industries:  Taking Stock of the Road Ahead (Pittman; 2005)

Developments in Horizontal Consolidation and Vertical Integration (O’Brien; 2005)

Concentration Concerns in the American Livestock Sector: Another Look at the Packers and Stockyards Act (Lauck; 2004)

An Overview of the Packers and Stockyards Act (Kelley; 2003)  

Local Food Systems

Where’s the Beef?: Legal and Economic Considerations for Direct Beef Sales (Lashmet et al, 2022, updated 2023)

Indiana Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres, Schlessinger, 2015)

Louisiana Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Brown & Rumley; 2015)

Michigan Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres, Schlessinger & Armstrong; 2015)

Kentucky Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley; 2015)

Pennsylvania Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley; 2014)

South Carolina Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley; 2013)

Nebraska Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres & Armstrong; 2013)

Ohio Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres & Armstrong; 2013)

Iowa Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres & Armstrong; 2013)

Georgia Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley)

Texas Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Cunningham, Rumley)

New York Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres, Schlessinger, Guray)

Colorado Direct Farm Business Guide (Endres, Schlessinger, Klopfenstein)

Florida Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley)

Alabama Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Revels & Rumley)

Mississippi Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, Cunningham & Rumley)

Legal and Business Guide for Specialty Crop Producers (National AgLaw Center & U. AR Division of Agriculture; 2011)

Illinois Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, A. Endres, J. Endres & Johnson; 2011)

Arkansas Direct Farm Business Guide (Tarr, A. Endres, J. Endres & Johnson; 2011)

General Legal Issues for Community Farmers Market Managers to Consider — PowerPoint Presentation (Crocker; 2010)

Organic and Sustainable Agriculture

The Organic Livestock and Poultry Practices Rule and Current Events (Barker, E. Rumley; 2018)

Federal Regulation of Organic Food: A Research Guide for Legal Practitioners and Food Industry Professionals (Jillian; 2006)

Farmers’ Markets: Rules, Regulations, and Opportunities (Hamilton; 2002)

A Legal Guide to the National Organic Program (Pittman, et al.; 2011)

Perishable Agricultural Commodities

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Factsheet (Pittman; 2012)

Secured Lending in the Produce Industry: What Every Bank Should Know (Klinowski; 2009)

ACA Roundup: A Review of Recent Cases (Pittman; 2003)

PACA: The Statutory Trust and Its Application for Restaurants (Pittman; 2003)


Uniform Easement Relocation Act (Rumley; 2023)


Preemption under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (Hartman & Rollins; 2021)

FIFRA: Steps to Pesticide Registration (Vance & Rollins; 2020)

50-State Survey: Landowner Liability for Pesticide Drift (Dowell Lashmet & Zetzsche; 2020)

Issue Brief: United States Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Orders EPA to Ban Chlorpyrifos (Wilkerson & E. Rumley; 2018)

Potential Spray Drift Damage: What Steps to Take? (Dowell; 2017)

Supreme Court Considers Preemption of State Law Claims Under the FIFRA (Pittman; 2005)  

Renewable Energy

Land Use Conflicts Between Wind and Solar Renewable Energy and Agricultural Uses (Hall, Morgan, Richardson; 2022)

Farmland Owner’s Guide to Solar Leasing (Hall, Bachelor, Romich; 2019)

Understanding Solar Energy Agreements (Ferrell; 2019)

Issue Brief: Renewable Fuel Standard: Establishment and Current Events (Rollins and E. Rumley; 2018)

Wind Energy Leasing Handbook — Workbook (Ferrell & R. Rumley; 2012)

States’ Biofuels Statutory Citations (Mirus & Goeringer; 2009)

Biofuels Statutory Citations: United States Federal Laws (Mirus; 2009)

The Renewable Fuels Standard Provisions Under the Clean Air Act: Overview and Recent Developments (Foy; 2008)

Biofuels:  Policy and Business Organization Issues (O’Brien; 2006)  

Rural Development

Liability of Federal Agencies for Failure to Abide by the Rural Development Act (Sheppard & Mazzanti; 2005)

Secured Transactions

Figuring the Federal Farm Products: Factsheet Series (Brown, 2022)

U.C.C. Forms and Filing Information (NALC Staff; 2020)

2005 Commercial Law Update (Meyer; 2006)  

Specialty Crops

Industrial Hemp Production Contracts: Managing Expectations and Mitigating Loss (Snowden & Rumley; 2020)

Innovative State Approaches to Hemp Regulations Under the 2018 Farm Bill (Essman; 2020)

Industrial Hemp Laws: State-by-State (Ogle & R. Rumley; 2019)

Food Safety and Specialty Crops (R. Rumley; 2012)

Food Labeling for Specialty Crop Producers (E. Rumley; 2012)

Approval of Pesticides (R. Rumley; 2012)

Crop Insurance for Edamame (R. Rumley; 2012)

Non-GMO Labeling (E. and R. Rumley; 2012)


Outline for Analyzing Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Regulation: Applicability for Agriculture (Dowell and E. Rumley; 2018)

Urbanization and Agriculture

Right-To-Farm: Typical Provisions (Lizano & R. Rumley; 2019)

Issue Brief: Smithfield Foods and Right to Farm in North Carolina (Rumley; 2018)

Right-To-Farm Statutes and Corporate Farming Laws (Rumley; 2009)

States’ Right-To-Farm Statutes (Springsteen; 2009)

Governments and Unconstitutional Takings: When Do Right-To-Farm Laws Go Too Far? (Centner; 2007)

Zoning Limitations and Opportunities for Farm Enterprise Diversification: Searching for New Meaning in Old Definitions (Branan; 2004)

Nuisance Immunity Provided by Iowa’s Right-to-Farm Statute (Dzur; 2004)  

Water Law

High-Capacity Wells: A Survey of Groundwater Withdrawal Rights and Regulations (Reid et al; 2021)

Exempt Wells and Agriculture (Richardson and Aloi; 2017)

Water Rights Table (Richardson and Aloi; 2017)

State Listings: Water Law Offices (Goeringer and Boyd; 2009)

Navigability May Determine Rights of Landowners on Streams (Looney; 2002)