Climate Change



Because greenhouse gas emissions are linked to almost every industry, including agriculture, manufacturing and transportation, they must be considered when looking at the future of all these industries. Agriculture and forestry are somewhat unique in their ability to both produce and reduce greenhouse gasses. According to the EPA, agriculture in the United States accounts for 9% of the nation’s total greenhouse gas emissions. The biological processes inherent in agriculture production, however, have the potential to allow agriculture to offset vastly more emissions than it produces. Read the full overview

Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.

Major Statutes

New legislation will be added to this section as it becomes law.

Conservation Stewardship Program, 7 CFR Part 1470
Federal Air Pollution and Control Act (a/k/a Clean Air Act), 42 U.S.C. §§ 7401-7671q
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321-4370f
Compilation of Current State and Federal Climate Change Statutes


Air Programs Regulations, 40 C.F.R. pts. 50-98
Energy Policy Regulations 40 C.F.R. pts. 600-610
Air Pollution Controls Regulations, 40 C.F.R. pts. 1027-1074

Case Law

Case Law Index for Climate Change

Case Law Chart (compiled by Arnold and Porter LLP)

Administrative Law Decisions

EPA Office of Administrative Law Judges
Environmental Appeals Board
USDA Office of Administrative Law Judges
USDA National Appeals Division
USDA Judicial Officer’s Decisions

Center Research Publications

Current State and Federal Climate Change Statutes (Goeringer & Boling, 2009)
Dealing with the USDA: Federal Administrative Law Basics (Kelley)
Managing Carbon in a World Economy: The Role of American Agriculture (Garry)

Congressional Research Service Reports

Reports– published and made available by CRS beginning in 2017

Subjects- published by CRS and made available by NALC until 2018:

Climate Change
Environmental Issues

Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Climate Change:

Environmental Issues
Land Use Regulation

Reference Resources

Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

Crop Systems & Global Change
Global Change National Program 204 FY2006 Annual Report

Economic Research Service (ERS)

Briefing Room: Climate Change
Agriculture and Climate Change


Climate Change and Agricultural Risk Management Into the 21st Century (Crane-Droesch et al., 2019)
Dedicated Energy Crops and Competition for Agricultural Land  (Sands et al., 2017)
Environmental Credit Trading (Rimbaud, 2010)
Agricultural Land Tenure and Carbon Offsets (Claassen and Morehart, 2009)
Trends in U.S. Agriculture’s Consumption and Production of Energy: Renewable Power, Shale Energy,and Cellulosic Biomas (Hitaj & Suttles, 2006)
Is Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture Economically Feasible? (Lewandowsky, Amber Waves, 2004)
Economics of Sequestering Carbon in the U.S. Agricultural Sector (Lewandowski, 2004)

Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change (Schimmelpfenning et al.) 
World Agriculture and climate Change: Economic Adaptations (Tsigas, 1995)
Climate Change, Water Scarcity, and Adaption in the U.S. Field Crop Sector

Department of Energy (DOE)

Climate Change and the Electricity Sector: Guide for Climate Change Resilience Planning: September 2016

Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Carbon Storage Research Program
Carbon Sequestration Video
Carbon Cycling and Sequestration
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
Terrestrial Carbon Management
National Energy Technology Lab (NETL)
Carbon Sequestration FAQs
Carbon Capture Publications
Carbon Storage Atlas of the U.S. and Canada
Carbon Storage Atlas V
NatCarb Home Page: A National Look at Carbon Sequestration
Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Reducing Global Warming – The Role of Rice
Publication: Climate Change Indicators in the United States (2016)
Legislative Analysis of Potential Domestic Climate Change Mitigation Programs (EPA Analysis, 10/23/2009)
U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Archive
Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
State and Local Climate and Energy Programs
Climate Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply
Climate Change Indicators in the United States
Climate Change Adaptation Plan
Agriculture: Climate Change
Climate Change Indicators: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Clean Power Act – Final Rule (2015)
Proposed Repeal of the Clean Power Act(10/16/2017)
Public Hearing Notice (11/08/2017)
Energy Independence Report (Issued 10/25/2017)
Memorandum Regarding the Executive Order 13783: Promoting Energy Independence and Economic  Growth (April, 2017)
EPA Final Report on Review of Agency Actions that Potentially Burden the Safe, Efficient Development of Domestic Energy Resources Under Executive Order 13783 (10/25/2017)
Overview of the Affordable Clean Energy Rule

Farm Service Agency (FSA)

Conservation and Environmental Programs Division 2008 Annual Report
Conservation Reserve Program: Estimating Water Quality, Air Quality, and Soil Carbon Benefits of the CRP
Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetland Conservation

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

Fish and Wildlife Service Climate Change Resource Index
Southeast Region Fish and Wildlife Service
Southeast Region Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration to Benefit Fish and Wildlife
Carbon Sequestration

USDA Forest Service: Carbon Sequestration

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

        Global Change and Climate Programs

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Global Climate Change Indicators
National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Climate Change
Climate Program Office

Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS)

Global Climate Change
Opportunities for Managing Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agricultural Systems
Fact Sheet: NRCS and Climate Change
Voluntary Reporting Carbon Management Tool
National Water and Climate Center

Office of the Chief Economist (OCE)

Climate Change Program Office
Effects of Climate Change On Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States (2008)
U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3
A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR 2454 on U.S. Agriculture (2009)
United States Geological Survey: Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change

Congressional Resources

Congressional Budget Office Climate Change Special Collection

The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (CBO, 2009)
The Use of Offsets to Reduce Greenhouse Gases (CBO, 2009)

Reports on Climate Change (Government Accountability Office)

Climate Change Trade Measures: Considerations for U.S. Policy Makers (GAO-09-724R, 2009)
Climate Change Trade Measures: Estimating Industry Effects (GAO-09-875T, 2009)

Other Federal Resources

Climate Change (National Agricultural Library)
Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture (RMA)
United States Global Change Research Program
U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program
Global Change Master Directory Web Site (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Global Change & Climate Programs (National Institute of Food and Agriculture)
Global Climate Change (U.S. Department of State)
Climate Research and Development Program (U.S. Geological Survey)
Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program (U.S. Geological Survey)
National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (U.S. Geological Survey)
U.S. Global Change Research Program
Full Report: National Climate Assessment

International Resources

United Nations Environmental Programme – Climate Change
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Climate Change: Implications for Food Safety (FAO, 2008)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Western Australian Department of Environmental Regulation: Climate Change
World Bank Climate Finance Website
Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation (International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009)
European Environmental Agency
Agriculture and Climate Change

Regional Partnerships

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership
Midwest Geological Carbon Sequestration Consortium
Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
Southwest Partnership CO2 Sequestration
West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

Additional Resources

United States Climate Action Partnership
Climate Change Posts(Ag & Food Law Blog)
Center for Climate Change Law (Columbia Law School)
Center for Climate & Energy Solutions
Agriculture’s Role in Addressing Climate Change
National Commission on Energy Policy
Carbon Sequestration (AL Forestry Commission)
Carbon Sequestration Research (Southeastern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership)
Glossary of Terms Used in Greenhouse Gas Inventory (CA EPA)
Carbon Offsets Registry (OK Forestry Services)
Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory Climate Change
Idaho Soil Conservation Commission
Soil Carbon Center (KS St. U.)
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Forest Carbon Portal
Nebraska Carbon Sequestration Program
Greenhouse Gas Online
Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)
European Climate Exchange

Voluntary Carbon Reporting and Registration Programs

Georgia’s Carbon Sequestration Registry (Georgia Forestry Commission)
California Climate Action Registry
“Comet VR” USDA Voluntary Carbon Credit Reporting
Carbon Trading: A Primer for Forest Landowners (National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry)
California Climate Change Legislation


The Effects of Climate Change on U.S. Ecosystems (USDA, 2009)
Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptations (USDA, 2012)
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2010)
Analysis of the Implications of Climate Change and Energy Legislation to the Agricultural Sector (U. TN, 2009)
ABCs of Carbon Markets (Dickinson, Mackaman, Tyler and Hagan PC, 2009)
Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation (International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009)
Economic Implications of the EPA Analysis of the CAP and Trade Provisions of H.R. 2454 for U.S. Representative Farms (Agricultural and Food Policy Center, TX A&M, 2009)
The Effect of Higher Energy Prices from H.R. 2454 on Missouri Crop Production Costs (Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute, University of Missouri, 2009)
Climate Change Home (The National Academies – NAS)
Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (NAS)
Understanding and Responding to Climate Change: Highlights of the National Academies Reports
International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture
The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity (US Climate Science Program)
Opportunities for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Through Forestry and Agriculture in Florida  (Wilkie, 2008)
Carbon Sequestration on Idaho Agriculture and Forest Lands (ID Soil Conservation Comm’n, 2003)
Carbon Credits: A Non-Traditional Source of Revenue for Mississippi Forest Landowners (MS St. Extension)
Carbon Sequestration Policy and Global Warming: A Legal Analysis (Thorson, 2001)
A Landowner’s Guide to Carbon Sequestration Credits (Central MN Regional Sustainable Development Partnership)
The Role of Agriculture in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Recommendations for a National Cap-and-Trade Program (21st Century Agriculture Policy Project, 2008)
The Role of Agriculture in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (USDA Economic Research Service, 2010)
Offsetting Emissions: A Business Brief on the Voluntary Carbon Market (Ecosystem Marketplace and Business for Social Responsibility, 2010)
A Consumers Guide to Retail Offset Providers (Clean Air/Cool Planet, 2006)
Agriculture & Global Climate Change: A Review of Impacts to U.S. Agricultural Resources (Pew Center, Adams et. al., 1999)
Agriculture: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change for the United States (Reilly et. al., 2001)