Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)



The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (“PACA”), 7 U.S.C. §§ 499a-499t, was enacted in 1930 to regulate the marketing of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The primary purposes of the PACA are to prevent unfair and fraudulent conduct in the marketing and selling of perishable agricultural commodities and to facilitate the orderly flow of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The PACA is administered and regulated by the Agricultural Marketing Service, an agency within the USDA. Read the full overview.

Major Statutes

The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA), 7 U.S.C. §§ 499a-499t


Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Requirements, 7 C.F.R. §§ 46.1-46.49
Rules of Practice Administrative Procedures for Reparation Proceedings, 7 C.F.R. §§ 47.1-47.49
Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings, 7 C.F.R. §§ 1.130-1.151
Federal Register Rules Open for Comment

Case Law

Case Law Index for Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act

Administrative Law Decisions

USDA, Office of the Administrative Law Judges
Center-published USDA Judicial Officer Decisions
Recent Reparation Decisions
ALJ Decisions
Judicial Officer Decisions

Center Research Publications

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Factsheet (Pittman, 2012)
Legal and Business Guide for Specialty Crop Producers (National AgLaw Center & U. AR Division of Agriculture, 2011)
Secured Lending in the Produce Industry: What Every Bank Should Know (Klinowski, 2009)
The PACA: The Statutory Trust and Its Application to Restaurants (Pittman, 2003)
PACA Roundup: A Review of Recent Cases (Pittman, 2003)

Congressional Research Service Reports

Reports– published and made available by CRS beginning in 2017
Subjects– published by CRS and made available by NALC until 2018:

Farm Commodity Programs

Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Perishable Agricultural Commodities:

Fruits and Vegetables – Perishable Agricultural Commodities

Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Commodities Covered by PACA
Common Questions & Answers
Dispute Resolution
Education & Training
Employment & License Bonds
Online PACA Services
PACA Contacts
PACA Enforcement
PACA Fact Finder
PACA Frequently Asked Questions
PACA Good Delivery Guidelines
PACA License Search
PACA Licensing
PACA Licensing Fees
PACA Overview
PACA Trust
Press Releases
Recent & Sample Reparation Cases by Subject
Rules & Regulations
Top 10 Contracting Issues

Congressional Resources

 Reports on PACA (Government Accountability Office)


PACA updates from USDA (Fresh Plaza, 2023)
The PACA Primer (Henkel & Cohen, P.A., 2022)
PACA Updates (Fresh Plaza, 2022)
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (Khan, Soares & Conway LLP, 2022)
PACA Web Guide (McCarron, 2012/2022)
Our Guide to PACA (Fruit Growers Supply Co., 2020)
PACA and Your Property (McDonagh, 2018)
PACA and Real Property: Follow the Fruit (Bocci, K&L Gates LLP, 2018)
Transactional Real Estate: The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (Berg, New York Law Journal, 2018)
What Exporters Need to Know About PACA (RTS Financial Service, Inc., 2018)
The PACA Trust (Charles, Provident Law, 2017)
Getting Paid: Tools for Washington Grape Growers (Washington Wine Industry Foundation, 2015)
PACA And Bankruptcy: What Secured Lenders Must Know (Monahan, Law360, 2014)
Federal Law Protects Farmers’ Rights to be Paid for Fruit and Vegetable Contracts Crops (FLAG, 2007)
PACA Trusts and Personal Liability (Blakeley, 2004)
Preferences, Reclamation, and PACA in One Case: A Three Ring Circus (Nathan, National Association of Credit Management, 2004)
Lender, Beware. The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act May Let Collateral Give You the Slip (Ingwersen, Journal of Lending & Credit Risk Management, 1999)

Additional Resources

International Fresh Produce Association
Blue Book Services
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (USDA AMS, 2013) (YouTube Video)
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (USDA AMS, 2012) (PowerPoint)
Produce Law 101: The PACA Trust and How it Works (Meuers Law Firm)
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Search Engine (USDA AMS, 2020) (
What is PACA? (Stokes Law Office)
PACA Law (Produce Pay Blog)