Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA)



The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (“PACA”), 7 U.S.C. §§ 499a-499t, was enacted in 1930 to regulate the marketing of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The primary purposes of the PACA are to prevent unfair and fraudulent conduct in the marketing and selling of perishable agricultural commodities and to facilitate the orderly flow of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The PACA is administered and regulated by the Agricultural Marketing Service, an agency within the USDA. Read the full overview.

Major Statutes

The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA), 7 U.S.C. §§ 499a-499t


Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Regulations, 7 C.F.R. §§ 46.1-46.49

Rules of Practice for Reparation Proceedings, 7 C.F.R. §§ 47.1-47.49

Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings, 7 C.F.R. §§ 1.130-1.151

Federal Register Rules Open for Comment

Case Law

Case Law Index for Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act

Administrative Law Decisions

USDA, Office of the Administrative Law Judges

Center-published USDA Judicial Officer Decisions

Recent Reparation Decisions

Summaries of Judicial Officer Decisions

Center Research Publications

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Factsheet (Pittman, 2012)

Legal and Business Guide for Specialty Crop Producers (National AgLaw Center & U. AR Division of Agriculture)

Secured Lending in the Produce Industry: What Every Bank Should Know (Klinowski, 2009)

The PACA: The Statutory Trust and Its Application to Restaurants (Pittman, 2003)

PACA Roundup: A Review of Recent Cases (Pittman, 2003)

Congressional Research Service Reports

Reports– published and made available by CRS beginning in 2017

Subjects– published by CRS and made available by NALC until 2018:

Farm Commodity Programs

Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Perishable Agricultural Commodities:

Fruits and Vegetables – Perishable Agricultural Commodities

Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

PACA Overview
Dispute Resolution
PACA Licensing
PACA Licensing Fees
Online PACA Services
Employment & License Bonds
PACA Trust
PACA Enforcement
PACA Frequently Asked Questions
PACA Good Delivery Guidelines
Top 10 Contracting Issues
PACA License Search
Education & Training
PACA Contacts
Press Releases

Congressional Resources

 Reports on PACA (Government Accountability Office)


Getting Paid: Tools for Washington Grape Growers (Washington Wine Industry Foundation, 2015)

PACA Web Guide (McCarron, 2012)

Federal Law Protects Farmers’ Rights to be Paid for Fruit and Vegetable Contracts (FLAG, 2007)

Preferences, Reclamation, and PACA in One Case: A Three Ring Circus (Nathan, National Association of Credit Management, 2004)

PACA Rights Destroyed by Oral Agreement Extending Payment Terms (Nathan, Nat’l Assoc. of Credit Management, 2004)

Paca Trusts and Personal Liability (Blakeley, 2004)

Lender, Beware. The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act May Let Collateral Give You the Slip (Ingwersen, Journal of Lending & Credit Risk Management, 1999)

Transactional Real Estate: The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (Berg, New York Law Journal, 2018)

PACA and Real Property: Follow the Fruit (Bocci, K&L Gates LLP, 2018)

The PACA Trust (Charles, Provident Law, 2017)

PACA And Bankruptcy: What Secured Lenders Must Know (Monahan, Law360, 2014)

Additional Resources

United Fresh

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (USDA AMS, 2013) (YouTube Video)

Produce Law 101: The PACA Trust and How it Works (Meuers Law Firm)

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Search Engine (USDA AMS, 2019) (