Alternative Dispute Resolution


contentphoto_disputeresolutionAs the number of cases filed each year has increased and court resources are stretched further and further, parties are turning to solutions outside the traditional judicial system as a faster, simpler solution to resolving a dispute. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a series of processes that seek to solve disputes among individuals without resorting to complex, time consuming and expensive litigation. While various forms of non-judicial dispute resolution practices have existed for centuries, ADR has become drastically more popular in the United States and internationally over the last fifty years. Read the full overview


Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.


Major Statutes

Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 1-307

Compilation of States’ Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Statutes

The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996

United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention of 1958)

Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (Panama Convention of 1975)

North American Free Trade Agreement, Ch. 20, Institutional Arrangements and Dispute Settlement Procedures

Model Uniform Arbitration Act (drafted by the Uniform Law Commission)

Model Uniform Mediation Act (drafted by the Uniform Law Commission)

Arbitration of Disputes concerning Milk (U.S.C. § 671, Agricultural Adjustment Act)

Regulations and Procedures

Code of Arbitration Procedure (2007)

International Chamber of Commerce Dispute Resolution Rules (2018)

International Dispute Resolution Procedures

International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution

Permanent Court of UNCITRAL Arbitration Documents and Resources

American Arbitration Association Rules and Procedures

NGFA Arbitration Rules (National Grain & Feed Ass’n)

NFGA Rail Arbitration Rules (National Grain & Feed Ass’n)

ACSA Arbitration Rules (American Cotton Shippers Association)

Center Research Publications

A Practitioner’s Guide to the Litigation of Federally Reinsured Crop Insurance Claims (Ballard, 2013)

States’ Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Statutes (Rumley, 2009)

Case Law

Case Law Index for Alternative Dispute Resolution

Agricultural Law Bibliography

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Legal publications on Alternative Dispute Resolution:

Administrative Law (Federal and State Farm Programs)
Agribusiness Corporations
Federal Loan Programs (Farmers Home Administration/Farm Service Agency)

Reference Resources

Department of Justice: Office of Dispute Resolution

USDA  Agricultural Mediation Program Factsheet

Coalition of Agricultural Mediation Programs (CAMP), NM State Univ. Coll. of Agri., Consumer, and Envt’l Sciences, 2018

National Center for State Courts: Alternative Dispute Resolution State Resources

Federal ADR Program Manager’s Resource Manual

Federal Judicial Center

Alternatives to Litigation: Do They Have a Place in Federal District Courts

Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service

Farm Service Agency: Agricultural Mediation Program

Farm Service Agency: Agricultural Mediation Training Slides

Developing Guidance for Binding Arbitration: A Handbook for Federal Agencies

Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group

International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution


International Resources

International Commercial Arbitration Resources (U. of Chicago Law School)

International Chamber of Commerce: Commission on Arbitration

International Council on Commercial Arbitration

London Court of International Arbitration

Permanent Court of Arbitration

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

National Association of Community Mediation

ADR of Canada

Farm Debt Mediation Act of Canada

Farm Debt Mediation Act of 1994 (NSW) Australia: current act

Farm Debt Mediation Amendment Bill 2018

World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Center

ADR Training Guides

Basic Mediation Training Trainer’s Manual (Mediation@MIT)

Alternative Dispute Resolution Practitioner’s Guide (1998)

Finding Neutrals Handbook

ADR and Settlement in the Federal District Courts: A Sourcebook for Judges and Lawyers

Mediation and Conference Programs in the Federal Courts of Appeals: A Sourcebook for Judges and Lawyers

The Guide to Dispute Resolution Processes

Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses: A Practical Guide


Farmland Investments Are Finding their Way to International Arbitration (Osterwalder and Smaller 2017).

The NGFA Arbitration System at Work (Bernstein, 2007)

A Comparative Analysis of Multilateral Environmental Negotiations

Finding Common Ground: Mediating Agricultural and Other Rural Disputes

Resolution on Good Faith Requirements for Mediators and Mediation Advocates in Court-Mandated Mediation Programs

MEDIATION: Getting Your Client and the Other Side to the Table (Barry)

Environmental Mediation: Beyond the Limits Applying Dispute Resolution Principles to Intractable Environmental Conflicts (Burgess and Burgess)

Mediating Land Use Cases (Forester)

The U.S. Uniform Mediation Act and the Draft UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation (Oretskin and Diaz)

Mediation Standards Checklist (2000)

Enforcing Arbitration Awards

Arbitration (Leb)

Drafting Arbitration Clauses (ABA, 2014)


Additional Resources

Mediation: An Ignored Option? (Matthews, 2018)

ADR Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)

Trade Rules (National Grain & Feed Ass’n)

American Arbitration Association – Resolution Solutions

Virtual Library – Arbitration Database

International Arbitration Case Law Index

National Arbitral Bodies

ADR and Settlement in Federal District Courts (1996)

A Guide to ADR Links

Environmental Mediation Center


Recommended Readings and Publications (not freely available electronically):

AAA Handbook on Mediation, Thomas E. Carbonneau and Jeannette A. Jaeggi (JurisNet 2010).

AAA Handbook on International Arbitration & ADR, Thomas E. Carbonneau and Jeannette A. Jaeggi (JurisNet 2010).

Mediation: A Comprehensive Guide to Resolving Conflicts Without Litigation, Jay Folberg and Alison Taylor (Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1984).

ADR & the Law (JurisNet, 22nd ed. 2008).

Alternative Dispute Resolution Practice Guide, Bette J. Roth et al., eds (Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Co.).

Basic Skills for the New Arbitrator, Allan H. Goodman (Solomon Publications, 2004).

Conflict Resolution: Theory, Research, and Practice, James Schellenberg (State U. of NY Press, 1996).

Court-Annexed Mediation: Critical Perspectives on Selected State and Federal Programs, Edward J. Bergman and John C. Bickerman (Pike & Fischer, Inc., 1998).

Dispute Resolution, Stephen Goldberg, et al. (Little, Brown and Company, 2007).

Environmental Mediation (The Foothills Case) in Resolving Environmental Regulatory Disputes, Heidi Burgess (Schenkman Books, 1983).

Federal Arbitration Law: Agreements, Awards, and Remedies Under the Federal Arbitration Act, Ian R. Macneil, et al. (Little, Brown and Company, 1994).

International Arbitration in the 21st Century: Towards Judicialization and Uniformity? The Twelfth Sokol Colloquium, Richard B. Lillich and Charles Brower, eds. (Transnational Publishers, 1992).

International Commercial Arbitration, Gary B. Born (Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers, 2009)

Mediation of Environmental Disputes: A Source Book, Scott Mernitz (Praeger Publishers, 1980).

Resolving Environmental Regulatory Disputes, Lawrence Susskind, et al. (Schenkman Books, 1983).

The Mediation Field Guide: Transcending Litigation and Resolving Conflicts in Your Business or Organization, Barbara Ashley Phillips (Jossey-Bass, 2001).

The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict, Christopher W. Moore (2nd ed., Jossey-Bass 2003).

The Mediator’s Handbook, Jennifer E. Beer & Eileen Stief (New Society Publishers, 2012).

The Negotiation Process: Theories and Applications, I. William Zartman (Sage Publications, 1978).

Mediator Communication Competencies: Problem Solving and Transformative Practices, William D. Kimsey, et al. (Pearson Custom Publishing, 2005).

The Politics of Environmental Mediation, Douglas J. Amy (Columbia University Press, 1987).

UNCITRAL Model Law of International Commercial Arbitration: A Documentary History, Igor I. Kavass and Arno Liivak (The Institute for International Legal Information, William S. Hein, 1985).

Treatise on the Law of Arbitration in Scotland: With and Appendix of Forms (Irons & Melville 1903)