Country of Origin Labeling (COOL)

 

Overviewcontentphoto_cool

While agricultural commodities remained exempt from COOL requirements for many years, the 2002 Farm Bill, Pub. L. No. 107-171 § 10816, 116 Stat. 134, 533-35, amended the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1621-1637b (codified at 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638-1638d), to require retail level country of origin labeling (COOL) for ground and muscle cuts of beef, lamb, and pork, as well as farm-raised fish, wild fish, shellfish, peanuts, and fresh fruits and vegetables. However, a 2016 appropriations bill modified the products covered so that COOL laws no longer apply to muscle cuts of beef or pork. The most recent 2016 regulation applies COOL laws to lamb, chicken, and goat meat, perishable agricultural commodities, macadamia nuts, pecans, peanuts, and ginseng. Read the full overview

 

Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.



Major Statutes

Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1621-1638d

COOL Provisions, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638-1638d

Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. §§ 1202-1681b

Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2004, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638d



Regulations

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Perishable Agricultural Commodities, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Peanuts, and Ginseng 7 C.F.R. pt. 65

Country of Origin Labeling for Fish and Shellfish, 7 C.F.R. pt. 60

Waters of the US Appendix, 7 C.F.R. pt. 60, Subpt. A, App. A

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

Imported Products Labeling Regulations, 9 C.F.R. §§ 327.14-327.15

Imported Poultry Products Labeling Regulations, 9 C.F.R. §§ 381.204-381.206

United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Country of Origin Marking Regulations, 19 C.F.R. §§ 134.0-134.55

Federal Register Rules Open for Comment



Case Law

Case Law Index for Country of Origin Labeling (COOL)

WTO Reports of the Panel: Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements (Nov. 18, 2011)

WTO Reports of the Appellate Body: Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements (June 29, 2012)



Center Research Publications

Cattle Traceability: Potential Legal Implications (Rumley & Dowell)

Issue Brief: Petition for Policy Change in FSIS’ “Product of U.S.A.” Label (Lizano, Rumley)

State-Level Catfish Labeling Laws (Springsteen, 2008)



Congressional Research Service Reports

CRS Subject(s):

International Agriculture/Trade Issues

Commodities

Animal Agriculture

Aquaculture



Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Country of Origin Labeling:

Aquaculture

Food and Drug Law

International Trade



Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Country of Origin Labeling

Summary of Changes: from the Interim Final Rules (7 CFR Part 60 and Part 65) to the Final Rule

COOL Retail Compliance Data  (2014)

FAQs- COOL Labeling Provisions Final Rule (2013)

Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) Frequently Asked Questions (2008)

Training Materials for Retailers, Suppliers and State Cooperators

Abbreviations Guidance (2009)

COOL Consumer Information Factsheet (2013)

COOL Customs and Border Protection Rulings

Suggested: Repeal of Beef and Pork Requirements

COOL Compliance and Enforcement (revised 2016)


Economic Research Service
 (ERS)

Animal Production & Marketing Issues

International Markets and Trade

Consumers Appear Indifferent to Country-of-Origin Labeling for Shrimp (Kuchler & Krisoff, 2012)

Country-of-Origin Labeling: Theory and Observation (Krissoff et al., 2004)

Economics of Food Labeling (Golan et al. 2001)


Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)

COOL – U.S. Mission to the European Union

Federal Register

Final Rule- COOL Updates (2016)

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

Labeling Policies

Regulations, Directives, and Notices

Meat, Poultry and Egg Product Inspection Directory

Label Submission and Approval 


Food and Drug Administration
 (FDA)

FDA – Canada MOU Regarding Areas of Agricultural Trade (1998)

FDA/ORA Compliance Policy Guides, Sec. 560.200 Country of Origin Labeling (CPG 7119.02) (2005)


Congressional Resources

Country of Origin Labeling Reports  (Government Accountability Office, GAO)


Other Federal Resources

Certain Country of Origin (COOL) Labeling Requirements — Canada (Office of the United States Trade Representative)

Certain Country of Origin (COOL) Labeling Requirements – Mexico (Office of the United States Trade Representative)


International Resources

Suggested: World Trade Organization

United States – Certain Country of Origin Labelling Requirements (D.S. 384)

United States – Certain Country of Origin Labelling Requirements (D.S. 386)


Publications

A COOL Repeal: Potential Outcomes of U.S. Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling Requirements on Dairy and Beef Sectors (Bonnano et al. 2016)

Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling Induced Structural Change of U.S. Meat Products (Yeboah et al. 2016)

Understanding How the Country of Origin Labeling Program Affects Farmers (FLAG, 2009)

The Country of Origin Labeling Program: A Snapshot of How the Program Affects Farmers (FLAG, 2009)

Market and Welfare Effects of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling in the U.S. Specialty Crops Sector: An Application to Fresh Market Apples (Plastina et al. 2009)

Potential Impact of Country of Origin Labeling on Structure of Beef Industry (Anderson & Hudson, 2004)

Effects of Country-of-Origin Labeling on Meat Consumers and Producers (Lusk & Anderson, 2004)

Country-of-Origin Labeling and the Beef Industry (Anderson & Capps, 2004)

Country of Origin Labeling: A Legal and Economic Analysis (International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center, VanSickle et al., 2003)

Country of Origin Labeling (McEowen, 2003)


Additional Resources

Country of Origin Labeling Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)

Country of Origin COOL Library (U.S. Cattlemen’s Association)

Country of Origin Labeling Resources (R-CALF USA)

Country of Origin Labeling (Produce Marketing Association)

Country of Origin Labeling Guide for Food Manufacturers (Amer. Frozen Food Institute)

Country of Origin Labeling: Enforcement and Inspection (Food Marketing Institute)

Country of Origin Labeling: It’s Time to Start Keeping Records (U. NE)