Country of Origin Labeling (COOL)

 

Overviewcontentphoto_cool

The 2002 Farm Bill, Pub. L. No. 107-171 § 10816, 116 Stat. 134, 533-35, amended the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (AMS), 7 U.S.C. §§ 1621-1637b (codified at 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638-1638d), to require retail level country of origin labeling (COOL) for shellfish, peanuts, fruits, vegetables, and various meats. According to the bill as originally enacted, mandatory COOL was to begin for covered commodities on September 30, 2004.  The implementation of mandatory COOL, however, has since been twice delayed. Congress first delayed the implementation of mandatory COOL on all covered commodities, except for farm-raised fish and wild fish, until September 30, 2006. AMS promulgated an interim final rule for the mandatory country of origin labeling of fish and shellfish on October 5, 2004. This interim final rule became effective on April 4, 2005, triggering all of the requirements of the COOL law upon suppliers and retailers of fish and shellfish. Read the full overview

 

Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.



Major Statutes

Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1621-1638d

COOL Provisions, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638-1638d

Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. §§ 1202-1681b

Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2004, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638d



Regulations

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Perishable Agricultural Commodities, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Peanuts, and Ginseng 7 C.F.R. pt. 65

Country of Origin Labeling for Fish and Shellfish, 7 C.F.R. pt. 60

Waters of the US Appendix, 7 C.F.R. pt. 60, Subpt. A, App. A

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

Imported Products Labeling Regulations, 9 C.F.R. §§ 327.14-327.15

Imported Poultry Products Labeling Regulations, 9 C.F.R. §§ 381.204-381.206

United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Country of Origin Marking Regulations, 19 C.F.R. §§ 134.0-134.55

Federal Register Rules Open for Comment



Case Law

Case Law Index for Country of Origin Labeling (COOL)

WTO Reports of the Panel: Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements (Nov. 18, 2011)

WTO Reports of the Appellate Body: Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements (June 29, 2012)



Center Research Publications

State-Level Catfish Labeling Laws (Springsteen, 2008)



Congressional Research Service Reports

CRS Subject(s):

International Agriculture/Trade Issues

Commodities

Animal Agriculture

Aquaculture



Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Country of Origin Labeling:

Aquaculture

Food and Drug Law

International Trade



Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Country of Origin Labeling

Summary of Changes: from the Interim Final Rules (7 CFR Part 60 and Part 65) to the Final Rule

COOL Summary Charts (2013)

FAQs- COOL Labeling Provisions Final Rule (2013)

Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) Frequently Asked Questions (2008)

Final Rule PowerPoint Presentation (March 2009)

Training Materials for Retailers, Suppliers and State Cooperators

Abbreviations Guidance (2009)

COOL Consumer Information (2009)

COOL Customs and Border Protection Rulings


Economic Research Service
 (ERS)

Animal Production & Marketing Issues

International Markets and Trade

Consumers Appear Indifferent to Country-of-Origin Labeling for Shrimp (Kuchler & Krisoff, 2012)

Country-of-Origin Labeling: Theory and Observation (Krissoff et al., 2004)

Economics of Food Labeling (Golan et al. 2001)


Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)

COOL – U.S. Mission to the European Union

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

Country of Origin Labeling for Meat And Chicken


Food and Drug Administration
 (FDA)

FDA – Canada MOU Regarding Areas of Agricultural Trade (1988)

FDA/ORA Compliance Policy Guides, Sec. 560.200 Country of Origin Labeling (CPG 7119.02) (2005)


Congressional Resources

Country of Origin Labeling Reports  (Government Accountability Office, GAO)


Other Federal Resources

Certain Country of Origin (COOL) Labeling Requirements — Canada (Office of the United States Trade Representative)

Certain Country of Origin (COOL) Labeling Requirements – Mexico (Office of the United States Trade Representative)


International Resources

United States – Certain Country of Origin Labelling Requirements (D.S. 384)

United States – Certain Country of Origin Labelling Requirements (D.S. 386)


Publications

Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) (Carr et al. Univ. of Florida, 2011)

Understanding How the Country of Origin Labeling Program Affects Farmers (FLAG, 2009)

The Country of Origin Labeling Program: A Snapshot of How the Program Affects Farmers (FLAG, 2009)

Market and Welfare Effects of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling in the U.S. Specialty Crops Sector: An Application to Fresh Market Apples (Plastina et al. 2009)

COOL: A Guide for Louisiana Cattle Producers (LSU, 2009)

Potential Impact of Country of Origin Labeling on Structure of Beef Industry (Anderson & Hudson, 2004)

Effects of Country-of-Origin Labeling on Meat Consumers and Producers (Lusk & Anderson, 2004)

Country-of-Origin Labeling and the Beef Industry (Anderson & Capps, 2004)

Country of Origin Labeling: A Legal and Economic Analysis (International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center, VanSickle et al., 2003)

Country of Origin Labeling (McEowen, 2003)


Additional Resources

Country of Origin Labeling Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)

Country of Origin Labeling Info (National Grocers Association)

Country of Origin Labeling Library (U.S. Cattlemen’s Assocation)

Country of Origin Labeling Information (Kansas Livestock Association)

Country of Origin Labeling Resources (R-CALF USA)

Country of Origin Labeling (Produce Marketing Association)

Country of Origin Labeling: Regulatory Affairs (Food Marketing Institute)

Country of Origin Labeling Information (The Angus Journal)

Country of Origin Labeling (American Frozen Food Institute)

Country of Origin Labeling: It’s Time to Start Keeping Records (U. NE)