Checkoff Programs

 

Overviewcontentphoto_checkoff

Checkoff programs, also referred to as research and promotion programs, promote and provide research and information for a particular agricultural commodity without reference to specific producers or brands. The term “checkoff” is derived from programs that were not mandatory; producers marked a checkoff box if they wished to contribute to the program. Mandatory programs do not have such forms, but the name has remained. Producers and handlers usually finance these programs from assessments charged on a per unit basis of the marketed commodity. Checkoff programs attempt to improve the market position of the covered commodity by expanding markets, increasing demand, and developing new uses and markets. Read the full overview

 

Note: Recently added resources are posted at the top of the applicable sections.



Major Statutes

Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7401; 7411-7425

Cotton Research and Promotion Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 2102-2118

Potato Research and Promotion Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 2611-2627

Egg Research and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 2701-2718

Beef Research and Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 2901-2911

Wheat and Wheat Foods Research and Nutrition Education Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 3401-3417

Floral Research and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 4301-4319

Dairy Research and Promotion Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 4501-4538

Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 4601-4613

Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 4801-4819

Watermelon Research and Promotion Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 4901-4916

Pecan Promotion and Research Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6001-6013

Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6101-6112

Lime Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6201-6212

Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6301-6311

Processor-Funded Milk Promotion Program Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6401-6417

Fresh Cut Flowers and Fresh Cut Greens Promotion and Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 6801-6814

Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7101-7111

Canola and Rapeseed Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7441-7452

National Kiwifruit Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7461-7473

Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7481-7491

Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act, 7 U.S.C. §§ 7801-7813


Regulations

Agricultural Marketing Service Marketing Orders and Agreements:

Fruits Vegetables Nuts, 7 C.F.R. pts. 900-999
Milk, 7 C.F.R. pts. 1000-1170
Miscellaneous Commodities, 7 C.F.R. pts. 1200-1291

Federal Register Rules Open for Comment



Case Law

Case Law Index for Checkoff Programs

Center Research Publications

Beef, Beans, & the First Amendment: Disappearing Sovereignty for State Beef Councils and Soybean Boards? (Pittman, 2017)

Soybean Checkoff Dollars & USDA “Redirection”: Compatible with Federal Law? (Pittman)

Beef Checkoff Dollars & USDA “Redirection”: Compatible with Federal Law? (Pittman)



Administrative Law Decisions

Office of the Administrative Law Judges

USDA National Appeals Division

Center published USDA Judicial Officer’s Decisions



Congressional Research Service Reports

CRS Subject(s):

Commodities



Agricultural Law Bibliography

Introduction   |   Keyword Search   |   Browse Categories

Legal publications on Checkoff Programs:

Livestock and Packers & Stockyards

Marketing Boards, Marketing Orders, Marketing Promotion, Marketing Quotas



Reference Resources

Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

Agricultural Marketing Service Industry Research and Promotion

Cotton Program

Dairy Programs

Livestock and Seed Programs

Poultry Programs

Fruit, Vegetable, and Specialty Crop Programs

Economic Research Service (ERS)

Federal Marketing Orders and Federal Research and Promotion Programs: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation (Neff & Plato, ERS, 1995)

Provisions of the FAIR Act of 1996: Title V Promotion (Wright, ERS)


Congressional Resources

Government Accountability Office Reports


Publications

Federal Farm Promotion (“Check-Off”) Programs (Becker, 2008)

USDA Proposes Changes in Beef, Soybean Checkoff Programs (AgriMarketin, 2016)

State-Grown Promotion Programs: Fresher, Better? (Patterson, 2006)

Theme: Articles on Commodity Checkoff Programs (Choices Magazine, American Agricultural Economics Association, 2006)

Supreme Court Rules That Beef Check-Off Is Government Speech; But Check-Off Litigation May Not Be Over (McEowen, 2005)

Update of Checkoff Litigation (FLAG, 2004)

Message Under Revision: USDA Speaks About Beef, Pork, Cheese, and Obesity (Wilde, 2004)

Beef and Pork Checkoffs: Challenges, Impacts, Alternatives (Ward & Hogan, OK State U.)


Additional Resources

Checkoff Programs Posts (Ag & Food Law Blog)

American Egg Board

American Lamb Board

Cattlemen’s Beef Promotion and Research Board

State Organizations

Cotton Board

Dairy Checkoff Works

State and Regional Organizations

Haas Avocado Board

Mohair Council of America

Mushroom Council

National Honey Board

National Mango Board

National Peanut Board

National Pork Board

State Associations

National Watermelon Promotion Board

Popcorn Board

Sorghum Checkoff

U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council

U.S. Meat Export Federation

U.S. Potato Board

U.S. Soybean Export Council

U.S. Wheat Associates

United Soybean Board