Statutes Regulating Ownership of

Agricultural Land

Compiled by:
Nick Spellman
Research Fellow
Micah Brown
Staff Attorney
National Agricultural Law Center
 

Foreign ownership of U.S. land, specifically private agricultural lands, is an issue that traces to the origins of the United States.  State laws vary widely and without a generalized or uniform approach. The following compilation includes state statutory prohibitions on foreign ownership of agricultural land, foreign ownership of other real property, reporting requirements, and corporate farming restrictions.  It bears noting that some states’ laws restrict only ownership of agricultural lands while allowing for at least some level of ownership of non-agricultural land.  Some states, such as Arizona, contain prohibitions on foreign ownership of public lands, which is outside the scope of this compilation.

In some states, foreign persons and entities have the same property rights as the citizens of those states. In other states, however, foreign ownership of agricultural land is prohibited or significantly limited within the boundaries of the state. Approximately fourteen states specifically forbid or limit nonresident aliens, foreign businesses and corporations, and foreign governments from acquiring or owning an interest in agricultural land within their state. Additionally, some states require foreign persons and entities to report their purchase or ownership interest in farmland within their state. These state reporting statutes often correspond with the federal reporting law under the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act.

These compilations are only an aid to research. State courts and federal courts, including United States Supreme Court decisions, have interpreted and continue to interpret these statutes. Further, this publication does not include case annotations, which a researcher must consult to thoroughly understand any particular statute. As such, these charts are intended for use solely as an educational tool and research aid, and not as a substitute for individual legal advice.  Additionally, the reader is cautioned that these laws are subject to changes that are often significant.

For each state, the first column of the chart includes a reference and link to the text of the relevant state constitutional and statutory provisions. Each compilation contains the code sections relevant to the topics found at the head of the chart and are linked to the specific language at issue. This compilation was last updated in March 2022.

State Relevant Provision(s) Prohibition Permission Reporting Corporate Farming
Alabama Ala. Const. § 34

Ala. Code § 35-1-1

None Yes None None
Alaska None None Not Expressly None None
Arizona Ariz. Const. art. X, § 11

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 37-240

Yes—public land only Not Expressly None None
Arkansas Ark. Const. art. II, § 20

Ark. Code Ann. § 2-3-111

Ark. Code Ann. § 18-11-101

None Yes Yes None
California Cal. Const. art. I, § 20

Cal. Civ. Code § 671

None Yes None None
Colorado Colo. Const. art. II, § 27 None Yes None None
Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 47-7a None Yes None None
Delaware Del. Code Ann. tit. 25, § 305

Del. Code Ann. tit. 25, § 306

Del. Code Ann. tit. 25, § 308

None Yes None None
Florida Fla. Const. art. I, § 2 None Yes None None
Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 1-2-11 Yes None None None
Hawaii HI Organic Act § 73(f)

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 171-68

Yes—public land only Not Expressly None None
Idaho Idaho Code Ann. § 55-103

Idaho Code Ann. § 58-313

Yes—public land only* Yes* None None
Illinois 765 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 50/1 to 50/8

765 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 60/7

None Yes Yes None
Indiana Ind. Code Ann. § 32-22-2-1

Ind. Code Ann. § 32-22-2-5

Ind. Code Ann. §§ 32-22-3-0.5 to 32-22-3-6

Yes—business entities only Yes* Yes—business entities only Yes
Iowa Iowa Code Ann. §§ 9H.1 to 9H.5

Iowa Code Ann. §§ 9I.1 to 9I.12

Iowa Code Ann. §§ 10.1 to 10.14

Iowa Code Ann. §§ 10B.1 to 10B.7

Iowa Code Ann. §§ 202B.101 to 202B.402

Yes None Yes Yes
Kansas Kan. Const. Bill of Rts. § 17

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 17-5904

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 17-7505 (effective until Jan. 1, 2023)

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 17-7505 (effective Jan. 1, 2023)

Yes—business entities only Not Expressly Yes—foreign for-profit corporations and cooperatives only Yes
Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 381.290 to 381.300 Yes None None None
Louisiana La. Const. Ann. art. I, § 4 None Yes None None
Maine Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 7, §§ 31 to 36

Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 33, § 451

None Yes Yes—foreign corporations and partnerships only None
Maryland Md. Code Ann., Real Prop. § 14-101 Yes None None None
Massachusetts Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 184, § 1 None Yes None None
Michigan MI CONST Art. 10, § 6

Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 554.135

None Yes None None
Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. §§ 500.24

Minn. Stat. Ann. §§ 500.221

Yes None Yes Yes
Mississippi Miss. Const. Art. 4, § 84

Miss. Code Ann. § 29-1-75

Miss. Code Ann. § 89-1-23

Yes None None None
Missouri Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 350.010 to 350.040

Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 442.560 to 442.592

Yes None Yes Yes
Montana None None Not Expressly None None
Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 76-402 to 76-415

Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 76-1520 to 76-1524

Yes None Yes Yes
Nevada Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 111.055 None Yes None None
New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 477:20 None Yes None None
New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 46:3-18 Yes None None None
New Mexico None None Not Expressly None None
New York N.Y. Real Prop. Law § 10 None Yes None None
North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. §§ 64-1 to 64-1.1 None Yes Yes None
North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code Ann. §§ 10-06.1-01 to 10-06.1-27

N.D. Cent. Code Ann. §§ 47-10.1-01 to 47-10.1-06

Yes None Yes Yes
Ohio Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2105.16

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 5301.254; 5301.99

None Yes Yes None
Oklahoma Okla. Const. art. XXII, § 1

Okla. Const. art. XXII, § 2

Okla. Stat. tit. 18, §§ 951 to 956

Okla. Stat. tit. 60, §§ 121 to 125

Yes None None Yes
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 273.255 Yes—public land only Not Expressly None None
Pennsylvania 68 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§ 41 to 47 Yes* Yes* State monitors AFIDA reporting None
Rhode Island 34 R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § 34-2-1 None Yes None None
South Carolina S.C. Const. art. III, § 35

S.C. Code Ann. §§ 27-13-10 to 27‑13‑40

Yes None None None
South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws §§ 43-2A-1 to 43‑2A-7

S.D. Codified Laws §§ 47-9A-1 to 47‑9A-23

Yes None State monitors AFIDA reporting Yes
Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 66-2-101 None Yes None None
Texas Tex. Prop. Code Ann. § 5.005 None Yes None None
Utah None None Not Expressly None None
Vermont Vt. Const. CH II, § 66 None Yes None None
Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 55.1-100 Yes None None None
Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 64.16.005 None Yes None None
West Virginia W. Va. Const. art. II, § 5

W. Va. Code Ann. § 36-1-21

None Yes None None
Wisconsin Wis. Stat. § 182.001

Wis. Stat. §§ 710.01 to 710.02

Yes* Yes* Yes Yes
Wyoming Wyo. Const. art. I, § 29 None Yes None None

* State Code contains law(s) that permit and prohibit foreign individuals and/or entities from acquiring, holding, or owning an interest in real estate located within the boundaries of their state.