A National AgLaw Center Research Publication

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (“UAV”) Laws: Typical Provisions

 

Compiled by:

Eli Earich, National Agricultural Law Center Research Fellow
&
Rusty Rumley, NALC Senior Staff Attorney
 
 

As technology in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles has evolved the agricultural industry has benefited from the usage of the new technology.  Along with potential benefits, the new technology also introduced new concerns surrounding issues such as privacy.  Privacy has been an issue ever since the invention of the airplane; however the cost of operating an aircraft has kept these concerns as relatively minor except with law enforcement usage.  The proliferation of UAV technology has driven down this cost which has led states to pass a series of laws dealing with concerns such as privacy, usage by law enforcement, training, and other topics.

The purpose of this compilation is to provide potential UAV operators, policy makers and educators with a means to rapidly research each state’s UAV laws.  This area of the law has rapidly evolved over the past couple of years and state’s laws have evolved in different ways depending on the issues that have arisen in their state. This compilation was last updated on May 1, 2023.

Relevant Statutes and Regulations Specific Provisions
Criminal Provisions Trespass and Privacy Obstruction Lawful Capture of Images/Data Hunting, Fishing & Wildlife Images as Evidence Possession or Distribution Editor’s Notes
Alabama Unregulated
Alaska AK ST § 14.40.082; 29.10.200; 29.35.146 & AK Admin. Code 5 AAC 33.398; 18 AAC 90.300 AK Admin. Code 5 AAC 33.398 AK ST § 29.35.146 Training Program – AK ST § 14.40.082; Home Rule Powers – § 29.10.200 & Certification Req. – AK Admin. Code 18 AAC 90.300
Arizona AZ ST § 13-3729; 28-8242; 28-8280 & AAC R12-4-319; 320 AZ ST § 13-3729; 28-8280 AAC R12-4-319; 320 Powers & Duties – AZ ST § 28-8242
Arkansas AR ST § 5-16-101; 102; 5-60-103; 16-118-111 AR ST § 5-16-101; 102; 5-60-103 AR ST § 5-16-101; 102 AR ST § 5-60-103 AR ST § 5-60-103 AR ST § 5-16-101; 102 Damages – AR ST § 16-118-111
California CA FOOD & AG § 11901; 11902; 11902.5; 11910 & PENAL 402; 647; 4577 CA PENAL § 402; 647; 4577 CA PENAL § 647; 4577 CA PENAL § 402  Pilot’s Certificate – CA FOOD & AG § 11901; Journeyman Designation – § 11902; Pilot’s Certificate – § 11902.5; Revocation of Certificate – § 11910
Colorado CO ST § 18-8-104 & 2 CCR 406-0:004 4 CCR 752-1:2.1; 2.2 CO ST § 18-8-104 CO ST § 18-8-104 4 CCR 752-1:2.1; 2.2 2 CCR 406-0:004
Connecticut CT ST § 7-149b Regulation – CT ST § 7-149b
Delaware DE ST TI 11 § 1256; 1334 & 7 Del. Admin. Code 9201-13.0 DE ST TI 11 § 1256; 1334 DE ST TI 11 § 1334 Environmental Violations – 7 Del. Admin. Code 9201-13.0
District of Columbia 19 DC ADC § 725 Permits – 19 DC ADC § 725
Florida FL ST § 330.41; 411; 934.50 & 40B-9.21; 68B-44.002 FL ST § 330.41; 934.50 FL ST § 934.50 68B-44.002 FAC FL ST § 934.50 Weapons Prohibitions – FL ST § 330.411 &  Definitions – 40B-9.021
Georgia GA ST § 6-1-4; 42-5-18 GA ST § 42-5-18 Preemption of Local Laws – GA ST § 6-1-4
Hawaii HI ST § 84-17; 132D-20; 200-40.5; 201-72.6; 72.7 & HAR § 4-66-64 HI ST § 200-40.5 HI ST § 132D-20 Disclosure Requirements – HI ST § 84-17; Advisory Board – § 201-72.6; Test Site Chief Operating Officer – § 201-72.7 & Aerial Restricted Use of Pesticides – HAR § 4-66-64
Idaho ID ST § 21-213; 36-1101 & IDAPA 13.01.03.010 ID ST § 21-213 ID ST § 36-1101 & IDAPA 13.01.03.010
Illinois IL ST CH 620 § 5/42.1; 720 § 5/48-3; 725 § 167/40 IL ST CH 720 § 5/48-3 IL ST CH 725 § 167/40 General Regulation – IL ST CH 620 § 5/42.1
Indiana IN ST § 14-22-6-16; 32-33-10.5-2; 35-31.5-2-343.7; 33-5-0.5; 42-4-12.5; 45-4-5; 10-6; 46-1-15.1 IN ST § 35-42-4-12.5; 45-4-5; 10-6; 46-1-15.1 IN ST § 35-42-4-12.5; 45-4-5; 10-6; 46-1-15.1 IN ST § 35-44.1-4-10 IN ST § 14-22-6-16 Definitions – IN ST § 32-33-10.5-2; Definitions – § 35-31.5-2-343.7; Definitions – § 35-33-5-0.5
Iowa IA ST § 719.9; 808.15 & Iowa Admin. Code 701-26.74(422, 423) IA ST § 719.9 IA ST § 808.15 Definitions – Iowa Admin. Code 701-26.74(422, 423)
Kansas KS ST § 60-31a02 KS ST § 60-31a02
Kentucky KY ST § 183.011; 085; 086; 446.010; 500.130; 501.110; 502.010; 511.100  & 200 KY Admin. Regs. 3:020 KY ST § 500.130; 511.100 KY ST § 511.100 KY ST § 500.130 Definitions – KY ST § 183.011; UAV Facility Map for Commercial Airport – 085; Restrictions & Exemptions – 086; Definitions – 446.010; Offense With Aid of UAS – 501.110; Liability – 502.010  & State Facilities and Grounds – 200 KY Admin. Regs. 3:020
Louisiana LA ST § 2:2; 3:41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 14:63; 108; 283; 283.1; 283.3; 284; 337 LA ST § 14:63; 283; 283.1; 284 LA ST § 14:108 LA ST § 3:44; 14:337 LA ST § 14:337 LA ST § 14:283.3 Regulation – LA ST § 2:2; Definitions – 3:41; Powers of Commissioner- 42; Licenses – 43; Violations – 45; Stop Orders – 46; Penalties – 47; Fees – 48
Maine 09-137 CMR CH 5 § 5.03; 94-293 CMR CH 1 § 5; 94-335 CMR CH 1 § 1 Shooting Ranges – 09-137 CMR CH 5 § 5.03; Vehicles and Transportation – 94-293 CMR CH 1 § 5; Public Use of Wells Reserve – 94-335 CMR CH 1 § 1
Maryland MD ECON DEV. § 14-301; 302 MD ECON DEV. § 14-301 Monitoring and Regulation – MD ECON DEV. § 14-302
Massachusetts 702 CMR 3.02 Registration – 702 CMR 3.02
Michigan MI ST § 259.301; 303; 305; 311; 313; 320; 321; 322; 323; 330; 331; 324.40111c; 40112; 388.1697; 750.45a & Mich. Admin. Code R. 318.111; 146 MI ST § 259.320; 323; 750.45a MI ST § 320; 322 MI ST § 259.321; 750.45a MI ST § 324.40111c; 40112 Title – MI ST § 259.301; Definitions – 303; Political Subdivison Regulation – 305; Commerial Purposes – 311; Recreational Purposes – 313; Offenses With Aid of UAS – 320; Commission Duties – 330; UAS Task Force – 331; School Safety Grants – 388.1697 & Definitions – Mich. Admin. Code R. 318.111; Misc. Unlawful Acts – 146
Minnesota Unregulated
Mississippi MS ST § 97-29-61 & 40 Miss. Admin. Code Pt. 2 R. 1.1 MS ST § 97-29-61 MS ST § 97-29-61 40 Miss. Admin. Code. Pt. 2 R. 1.1
Missouri 1 MO Code of State Reg. 35-1.050 Public Use of State Facilities – 1 MO Code of State Reg. 35-1.050
Montana MT ST § 46-5-109; 76-13-214 MT ST § 76-13-214 MT ST § 46-5-109
Nebraska Unregulated
Nevada NV ST § 231.1525; 493.020; 100; 103; 106; 109; 118; 130; 501.376; 3857; 503.010 & NAC 501.200; 503.148 NV ST § 493.100; 106; 109; 130; 501.376 NV ST § 493.103 NV ST § 501.376; 3857; 503.010; NAC 501.200; 503.148 Duties of Economic Office Development – NV ST § 231.1525; Definitions – 493.020; UAV & Dept. of Safety – 118; UAV Limitations – NAC 555.280; Fields of Licensed Applicators – 613
New Hampshire NH ST § 207:57 & NH Code Admin. R. Fis. 312.01; 02; NH Code Admin. R. Saf-C 2908.01; 2904.03 NH ST § 207:57 NH ST § 207:57 & NH Code Admin. R. Fis. 312.01; 02 Reimbursement – NH Code Admin. R. Saf-C 2908.01; Unallowable Costs – 2904.03
New Jersey NJ ST § 2C:40-27; 28; 29; 23:7A-2; 52:9X-12 & NJAC 7:25-5.22; 16:54-2.1; 19:76-1.2; 2.18 NJ ST § 2C:40-28 NJ ST § 2C:40-28 NJ ST § 2C:40-28; 23:7A-2 & NJAC 7:25-5.22 Critical Infrastructure – NJ ST § 2C:40-27; Preemption – 29; Research & Development – 52:9X-12 & Practice Standards – NJAC 13:40-15.16; Definitions – 16:54-2.1; Definitions – 19:76-1.2; FAA Compliance – 2.18
New Mexico NM Admin. Code 19.31.2; 10 NM Admin. Code 19.31.2; 10
New York NY TAX § 1115 Inapplicability of Tax Exemption – NY TAX § 1115
North Carolina NC ST § 14-7.45; 280.3; 401.24; 25; 15A-300.1; 2; 3; 63-94; 95; 96; 113-295 NC ST § 14-280.3; 401.24; 25; 15A-300.3 NC ST § 15A-300.1; 113-295 NC ST § 14-401.24; 113-295 NC ST § 14-401.25 Crimes With Aid of UAV – NC ST § 14-7.45; Launch and Recovery Site Regs. – 15A-300.2; Article Applicability – 63-94; Training Requirement – 95; Permit Requirement – 96
North Dakota ND ST § 26.1-39-27; 54-60-28; 29; 29.1 & NDAC 30-04-02-22; 58-02-08-02; 16.1 NDAC 58-02-08-16.1 NDAC 30-04-02-22 UAV Insurance – ND ST § 26.1-39-27; UAS Program Report – 54-60-28; UAS Program Fund – 29; Beyond Visual Line of Sight UAS Program – 29.1 & Definitions – NDAC 58-02-08-02
Ohio OH ST § 122.98 & OAC 1501:3-2-16; 3339-16-17; 3341-6-50; 3342-5-12.16; 3356-4-44; 3364-61-14 OAC 1501:31-15-02 Aerospace and Aviation Committee – OH ST § 122.98 & Aviation Regulation – OAC 1501:3-2-16; FAA Rule by Reference – 3339-16-17; BGSU Regulations – 3341-6-50; Kent State Univ. Regulations – 3342-5-12.16; Youngstown State Univ. Regulations – 3356-4-44; Univ. of Toledo Regulations – 3364-61-14
Oklahoma OK ST T 3 § 322; T 74 § 5003.12 &  Okla. Admin. Code 1:2016-15; 2019-12; 710:65-13-30.1 OK ST T 3 § 322 Aerospace Commerce Economic Services Act – OK ST T 74 § 5003.12 & Critical Infrastructure Executive Order – Okla. Admin. Code 1:2016-15; UAV Acquisition Dept. Executive Order – 2019-12; Excise Tax Applicability – 710:65-13-30.1
Oregon OR ST § 163.700; 164.885; 498.128; 837.300; 360; 365; 370; 372; 374; 375; 380; 385; 995 & OAR 213-017-004; 018-0110; 738-080-0015; 0020; 0045; 140-0025 OR ST § 163.700; 837.365; 370; 374; 995 OR ST § 163.700; 837.372 OR ST § 498.128 OR ST § 837.362 Endangering Aircraft – OR ST § 164.885; Definitions – 837.300; Registration – 360; Civil Penalties – 375; Low Flying UAV Action for Damages – 380; Preemption of Local Regs. – 385 & Crime Categories – OAR 213-017-004; Weaponized UAS – 018-0110; Definitions – 738-080-0015; Fed. Aircraft and UAS – 0020; Public Body Registration – 0045; Intentional Violation of Registration Requirements 140-0025
Pennsylvania PA ST 18 CSA § 3505; 53 CSA § 305; 72 CSA § 7204 & 58 PA Code § 135.41 PA ST 18 CSA § 3505 PA ST 18 CSA § 3505 PA ST 18 CSA § 3505 58 PA Code § 135.41 Local Regs. – PA ST 53 CSA § 305; Tax Exclusion – 72 CSA § 7204
Rhode Island RI ST § 1-8-1; 250-RICR-60-00-9.17; 100-00-1.9; 1.27; 800-RICR-10-00-1.17; 1.4 250-RICR-100-00-1.9 250-RICR-60-00-9.17; 100-00-1.9 Exclusive Regs. – RI ST § 1-8-1; UAS Park Regulations – 250-RICR-100-00-1.27; FAA Compliance – 800-RICR-10-00-1.17; Definitions – 1.4
South Carolina SC ST § 24-1-300; 5-175 SC ST § 24-1-300; 5-175
South Dakota SD ST § 22-21-1; 41-8-39; 50-1-1; 15-2; 15-3; 14-4 SD ST § 22-21-1; 50-15-3; 14-4 SD ST § 22-21-1 SD ST § 41-8-39 Definitions – SD ST § 50-1-1; FAA Compliance – 15-2
Tennessee TN ST § 39-13-609; 901; 902; 903; 904; 905; 906; 907; 14-405; 70-4-301; 302 & Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1720-01-02-.02; .06 TN ST § 39-13-903; 14-405; 70-4-302 TN ST § 39-13-903; 904; 905 TN ST § 39-13-902; 903 TN ST § 70-4-302 TN ST § 39-13-903; 905 TN ST § 39-13-904 Definitions – TN ST § 39-13-901; Applicability of Part – 906; Construction of Part – 907; Definitions – 70-4-301 & Definitions – Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 1720-01-02-.02; .Use on University Property – 06
Texas TX GOVT ST § 418.054; 423.001; 002; 003; 004; 005; 006; 009; 0045; 0046 & 19 TAC § 130.2; 451; 37 TAC § 8.21; 22 TX GOVT ST § 423.003; 004; 0045; 0046 TX GOVT ST § 423.002; 003; 005 TX GOVT ST § 423.005 TX GOVT ST § 423.004; 005; 006 UAS Study Group – TX GOVT ST § 418.054; Definition – 423.001; Regulation by Political Subdivision – 009 & Principles of Agriculture Education – 19 TAC § 130.2; Adv. Transportation Lab – 451; Prohibition – 37 TAC § 8.21; Limited Use Authorization – 22
Utah UT ST § 65A-3-2.5; 72-14-101; 102; 103; 104; 301; 303; 304; 401; 403; 76-6-206; 9-308; 402 & UAC R651-601-18; 602-8; 657-5-2; 14 UT ST § 65A-3-2.5; 72-14-303; 304; 403; 76-6-206; 9-308; 402 UT ST § 76-6-206; 9-402 UT ST § 65A-3-2.5 UAC R657-5-2; 14 Title – UT ST § 72-14-101; Definitions – 102; Preemption of Local Ordinances – 103; Applicability of Part – 104; Title – 301; Title – 401 & Definition – UAC R651-601-18; Operation in Park – 602-8
Vermont VT ST T 13 § 4018; T 20 § 4621; 4625; T 32 § 9741 & VT ADC 16-4-159:2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0 VT ADC 16-4-159:2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0 Weapons Prohibition – VT ST T 13 § 4018; Definitions – T 20 § 4621; Use Near Correctional Facility – 4625; Sales Tax Non-Exemption – T 32 § 9741
Virginia VA ST § 15.2-926.3; 18.2-121.3; 324.2; 19.2-60.1 & 1 VAC 30-150-30 VA ST § 18.2-121.3 VA ST § 18.2-121.3; 324.2 VA ST § 18.2-324.2 VA ST § 19.2-60.1 Local Regulation – VA ST § 15.2-926.3 & Events Rules – 1 VAC 30-150-30
Washington Unregulated
West Virginia WV ST § 20-2-5; 61-16-1; 2; 15-12-2 & WV Code St. R. 58-23-6 WV ST § 20-2-5; 61-16-2 WV ST § 61-16-2 WV ST § 20-2-5 & WV Code St. R. 58-23-6 Authority of Park Director – WV ST § 20-5-2; Definitions – 61-16-1; Registration – 15-12-2
Wisconsin WI ST § 29.083; 114.045; 941.10; 292 WI ST § 941.292 WI ST § 942.10 WI ST § 29.083 Limits on Operation – WI ST § 114.045
Wyoming WY ST § 10-1-101; 3-201; 301; 4-303 & WY Rules and Reg. 040.0001.2 § 2 WY Rules and Reg. 040.0001.2 § 2 Definitions – WY ST § 10-1-101; Powers and Duties – 3-201; Investigative Authority – 301; Low or Dangerous Flight – 4-303