Case Law Index Finance and Credit

January 1, 1995 – March 1, 2017

 

This index provides a comprehensive though not necessarily exhaustive compilation of reported and unreported federal and state court decisions involving Finance and Credit that were decided between the dates listed above. The cases are listed in reverse chronological order. The “Text” link goes to the freely available Google Scholar text of the opinion.  These listings are for educational purposes only, and are not a substitute for legal counsel.


 

SUPREME COURT

Franconia Assocs. v. United States, 536 U.S. 129 (2002)  Text       (FmHA low interest loans for rural areas)


 

FIRST CIRCUIT

United States v. Colon-Rodriguez, No. 07-0507CCCC, 2010 WL 3810121 (D. Puerto Rico Sept. 27, 2010) (prosecution for false statements made in connection with obtaining FSA emergency loans)  Text

United States v. Williams, No. 08-CV-427-B-W, 2009 WL 2134139 (D. Me. July 26, 2009) (government was not required to comply with state law notice requirements; acceleration of payments)

Toledo-Gonzalez v. United States, 2007 WL 2743685 (D. P. R. 2007) (criminal fraud with FSA loans)   Text

United States v. Sayer, 450 F.3d 82 (1st Cir. 2006) (foreclosure on FSA loan)   Text

United States v. Alfonzo-Reyes, 384 F.Supp.2d 523 (D.P. R. 2005) (fraud in obtaining FSA loans)   Text

United States v. Arnold, 366 F.Supp.2d 191 (D. Me. 2005) (foreclosure on FSA loans)   Text

United States v. Cyr, 2004 WL 1571808 (D. Me. 2004) (foreclosure of an FSA loan and Homestead Exemption)   Text

Harriman v. U.S. Agr. Sec’y, 01-148-B-H, 2001 WL 1382032 (D. Me. Nov. 6, 2001) (foreclose of mortgage)

United States v. Chappell, CIV. 98-524-M, 2000 WL 1507431 (D. N.H. June 15, 2000) (government foreclosure action)

Harriman v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 99 F. Supp. 2d 105 (D. Me. 2000) (USDA’s failure to approve an operating loan application)  Text

Harriman v. U.S. Dep’t of Agr., CIV. 99-41-B, 1999 WL 33208103 (D. Me. Apr. 15, 1999) (FSA foreclosure on a loan)

U.S. v. Est. of Matos, 96-1750 (JP), 1997 WL 557621 (D. P.R. 1997) (mortgage foreclosure action)

United States v. J.R. LaPointe & Sons, Inc., 950 F. Supp. 21 (D. Me. 1996) (action to recover on debt to the FmHA; statute of limitations)  Text


 

SECOND CIRCUIT

In Re Milky Way Organic Farm, LLC, No. 12-10742 (Bankr. D. Vt. Feb. 14, 2017). (motion to dismiss Chapter 12)  Text

Sheehy v. Johanns, 2007 WL 656429 (W.D.N.Y. 2007) (foreclosure on farm loan)   Text

United States v. Rinehart, 2005 WL 2922181 (N.D.N.Y. 2005) (foreclosure on farm loan)   Text

United States v. Fugle, 2003 WL 251948 (W.D.N.Y. Jan. 25, 2003) (government foreclosure action)

United States v. Gilmore, 31 F.App’x 43 (2d Cir. 2002) (FSA foreclosure on a loan)

United States v. Gilmore, 62 F. Supp. 2d 576 (D. Conn. 1999) (foreclosure of mortgage on farm due to default on FmHA’s loans)   Text

Bentley v. Glickman, 234 B.R. 12 (N.D. N.Y. 1999) (bankruptcy; refusal to grant the loan)   Text

United States v. Gilmore, 172 F.3d 39 (2d Cir. 1999) (foreclosure of mortgage on farm due to default on FmHA’s loans)

Flint v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 39 F. Supp. 2d 418 (D. Vt. 1997) (foreclosure of FSA mortgage; homestead protection)  Text


 

THIRD CIRCUIT

U.S. v. George, Civ. No. 1:08-cv-00036, 2010 WL 2998886 (D. V.I. July 27, 2010) (partitioning of land during foreclosure)  Text

United States v. Olayer, No. 08-4581, 2009 WL 1452040 (3d Cir. May 26, 2009) (foreclosure of mortgage)

United States v. Olayer, No. 02:07cv1256, 2008 WL 4616847 (W.D. Pa. Oct. 16, 2008) (foreclosure of FSA mortgage)  Text

Ansell v. United States, No. 2:05-CV-505, 2007 WL 2593777 (W.D. Pa. Sep. 4, 2007) (limitations on suits involving farm ownership loans)

Visconti v. Veneman, No. Civ. 01-3503(JBS), 204 F.App’x 150 (3d Cir. 2006) (not selected for publication in the federal reporter) (discrimination in lending)

Ordille v. United States., 2005 WL 2372963 (D.N.J. Sep. 26, 2005) (discrimination suit against FSA)

Marslette v. Glickman, No. Civ.A. 00-509-SLR, 2003 WL 21035015 (D. Del. Apr. 28, 2003) (discrimination suit against FSA)


 

FOURTH CIRCUIT

US v. Lane, No. 5: 16-CV-64-BO (D.N.C. Nov. 15, 2016) (Breach of Contract in FSA loan) Text

U.S v. McClintock Dairy, LLC, Civil Action No. WMN-13-3854 (D. Md. Oct. 1, 2014) (security interest in loan acceleration) Text

United States v. Painter, No. 5:08cv00093, 2009 WL 3135436 (W.D. Va. Sept. 28, 2009) (collection on secured loan)

Palmer v. City Nat. Bank of W. Va., 498 F.3d 236 (4th Cir. 2007) (alleged fraudulent lending)   Text

United States v. Adams, CA No. 8:05-3167-HMH, 2007 WL 2138612 (D. S.C. Jul. 23, 2007) (acceleration of loan)   Text

Riley v. Robey, 25 F.App’x 149 (4th Cir. 2002) (default on a FSA loan)

Faulkner v. Glickman, 172 F. Supp. 2d 732 (D. Md. 2001) (discrimination suit against FSA)  Text

Cooper v. Glickman, 50 F. Supp. 2d 489 (M.D. N.C. 1999) (FmHA’s denial of loan servicing)  Text

In re Bryant, 235 B.R. 581 (W.D. Va. 1998) (whether FmHA lien included certain livestock)  Text

Bryant v. Sec’y, U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 227 B.R. 89 (W.D. Va. 1998) (challenging FSA’s decision not to service farm loan)  Text

McCall v. United States, 125 F.3d 848 (4th Cir. 1997) (denial of a farm loan)

Chamblee v. Espy, 100 F.3d 15 (4th Cir. 1996) (challenging FmHA’s decision to suspend loan servicing)  Text


 

FIFTH CIRCUIT

U.S. v. Green, No. 10-813, 2010 WL 5125717 (W.D. La. Dec. 9, 2010) (recover of security on FSA loan after death of debtor)

Panorama Const. v. Farm Credit Serv. of Cent. Kansas, No. 5:09-CV-273-C, 2010 WL 3292674 (N.D. Tex. Aug. 20, 2010) (fraud and tortious interference with foreclosure contract)  Text

U.S. v. Crook, No. 09-000133, 2010 WL 2923196 (W.D. La. July 16, 2010) (sale of farm equipment held by lien for FSA loans)

Rabo Agrifinance Inc. v. Terra XXI Ltd., 583 F.3d 348 (5th Cir. 2009) (statute of limitations barred foreclosure of lien)  Text

United States v. Oliver, No. 08:30305, 2009 WL 106508 (5th Cir. Jan. 16, 2009) (statute of limitations; failure to foreclose in proper time)  Text

United States v. Oliver, No. 07-0590, 2008 WL 215398 (W.D. La. Jan. 24, 2008) (default on loan)

Rabo Agrifinance Inc. v. Terra XXI Ltd., 257 F.App’x 732 (5th Cir. 2007) (acceleration of a loan)

Lewis v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. Civ.A.4:04CV193-P-B, 2006 WL 379382 (N.D. Miss. Feb. 15, 2006) (delinquent farm loans)   Text

Reeves v. Klurfield, No. Civ.A. 503-CV-143-C, 2004 WL 691212 (N.D. Tex. Mar. 31, 2004) (appeal of a NAD ruling on a farm operating loan)   Text

Seward v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 229 F.Supp.2d 557 (S.D. Miss. 2002) (setoff and inequitable conduct by the FSA)   Text

United States v. Hart, 295 F.3d 451 (5th Cir. 2002) (alleged false statements for government loans)  Text

Vogel v. Veneman, 276 F.3d 729 (5th Cir. 2002) (FSA loan and Homestead exemption)   Text

Green v. Veneman, 159 F. Supp. 2d 360 (S.D. Miss. 2001) (suit under the ECOA)  >Text

Coghlan v. Glickman, 241 F. Supp. 2d 643 (S.D. Miss. 2001) (eligiblity for leaseback/buyback loan servicing programs)  Text

Vogel v. Glickman, 117 F. Supp. 2d 572 (W.D. Tex. 2000) (homestead exemption and farm loans)  Text

Bass v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 211 F.3d 959 (5th Cir. 2000) (value of land conveyed to FSA to repay loans)  Text

Calhoun v. USDA Farm Serv. Agency, 920 F. Supp. 696 (N.D. Miss. 1996) (foreclosure on farm loan, preference to purchase the property)  Text


 

SIXTH CIRCUIT

United States v. Gilbert, No. 10-CR-20505, 2011 WL 652830 (E.D. Mich. Feb. 14, 2011) (farmer inappropriately used proceeds of sale of crop for purposes other than to pay indebtedness to US)

Lea v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 1:10-CV-00029, 2011 WL 182698 (W.D. Ky. Jan. 19, 2011) (FSA loan subordination)

Morawski v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 09-14568, 2010 WL 2663201 (E.D. Mich. July 2, 2010) (foreclosure of mortgage)  Text

United States v. Morawski, No. 6-13776, 2008 WL 3539995 (E.D. Mich. 2008) (foreclosure of mortgage)

First Tenn. Bank Nat’l Ass’n v. Johanns, 618 F.Supp.2d 778 (M.D. Tenn. 2008) (lender entitled to partial award on loan loss claim)  Text

United States v. Bli, No. 00-10484, 2006 WL 3333104 (E.D. Mich. Nov. 15, 2006) (false claims act case in obtaining loans and farm program payments)

Estate of James v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 136 F. App’x 844 (6th Cir. 2005) (shared appreciation agreements)   Text

Estate of James v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 404 F.3d 989 (6th Cir. 2005) (shared appreciation agreements)   Text

James v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 3:01-CV-628, 2003 WL 24135441 (E.D. Tenn. Sep. 22, 2005) (shared appreciation agreements)

Gibbs v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 3:02-CV-547, 2003 WL 24135442 (E.D. Tenn. Sep. 11, 2003) (shared appreciation agreements)

Curtis v. Farm Serv. Agency, 4:00-CV-93, 2001 WL 822413 (W.D. Mich. June 22, 2001) (shared appreciation agreement)

Wright v. Farm Serv. Agency, 4:00-CV-94, 2001 WL 822417 (W.D. Mich. June 22, 2001) (shared appreciation agreement)

Green v. United States, 8 F. Supp. 2d 983 (W.D. Mich. 1998) (prioritization of loans; eligibility for FSA loan)  Text


 

SEVENTH CIRCUIT

United States v. Mengel, No. 08-cv-654-bbc, 2009 WL 1505054 (W.D. Wis. May 27, 2009) (foreclosure of mortgages executed in favor of FSA)  Text

Wiese v. Cmty. Bank of Cent. Wis., No. 08-cv-272-bbc, 2008 WL 4756679 (W.D. Wis. Oct. 28, 2008) (loss claim on FSA guaranteed loan)  Text

United States v. Yaroch, Nos. 07-20243-BC, 2008 WL 2129846 (E.D. Mich. May 19, 2008) (fraudulently obtaining a loan)

United States v. Mercer, No. 1:05-CV-01274-SEB-JMS, 2007 WL 2822510 (S.D. Ind. Sep. 26, 2007) (shared appreciation agreements)

United States v. Anderson, No. 2:04-CV-121, 2007 WL 2126871 (D.N.D. Jul. 23, 2007) (shared appreciation agreements)

Dye v. United States, 360 F.3d 744 (7th Cir. 2004) (conveyance of land to the FSA)  Text

In re Mau, 293 B.R. 919 (Bankr. C.D. Ill. 2003) (dischargeability of debt)  Text

Israel v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 282 F.3d 521 (7th Cir. 2002) (shared appreciation agreements)  Text

In re Batterton, 00-80181, 2001 WL 34076431 (Bankr. C.D. Ill. Apr. 5, 2001) (subordinating ag liens)

Israel v. U.S. Dep’t of Agr., 135 F. Supp. 2d 945 (W.D. Wis. 2001) (shared appreciation agreement)  Text

United States v. Scheumann, 132 F.3d 37 (7th Cir. 1997) (foreclose on loans)  Text


 

EIGHTH CIRCUIT

In re Leonard, — B.R. –, (B.A.P. 8th Cir. Feb. 24, 2017). (noncompliance with livestock bill of sale did prevent transfer of title; passage of title controlled by UCC) Text

In re Vantiger-Witte, No. BR 12-00239 (Bankr. N.D. Iowa Sept. 12, 2016) (Chapter 13 plans submission upheld due to “good faith”)  Text

Buffalo River Watershed Alliance v. Dep’t of Agric., No. 4: 13-cv-450-DPM (E.D. Ark. Dec. 2, 2014) (injunction due to Endangered Species Act; FSA loans and their environmental impact) Text

Bartlett v. US Dep’t of Agric., 716 F.3d 464 (8th Cir. 2013) (improper price-election under SURE Program) Text

In re Richmond, 430 B.R. 846 (Bankr. E.D. Ark 2010) (debtor in Chapter 7 proceeding could not be held personally liable for unpaid crop loans)  Text

Arnegard v. Feilmeier, No. 4:08-CV-083, 2009 WL 2590536 (D.N.D. Aug. 19, 2009) (violation of terms of storage and marketing assistance loan agreement)

United States v. Anderson, 570 F.3d 1025 (8th Cir. 2009) (wire fraud in loan from Farm Credit)  Text

In re Alvo Grain & Feed, Inc., Nos. BK08-80876-TLS, A08-8029-TLS, 2009 WL 1609385 (Bankr. D. Neb. June 8, 2009) (seriously misleading financing statement)  Text

Farmers Coop. Co. v. Swift Pork Co., 602 F.Supp.2d 1095 (N.D. Iowa 2009) (agricultural supply dealer’s lien; claim not time barred)  Text

United States v. Tallent, No. 4:07CV00520 BSM, 2009 WL 160318 (E.D. Ark. Jan. 21, 2009) (foreclosure of FSA mortgage)  Text

Her v. Regions Fin. Corp., Nos. 07-2017, 06-2178, 06-2153, 2008 WL 5381321 (W.D. Ark. Dec. 22, 2008) (“first to file” bar in False Claims Act)  Text

Dahlgren v. First Nat. Bank of Holdrege, 533 F.3d 681 (8th Cir. 2008) (involuntary bankruptcy of a commercial feedlot)   Text

United States ex rel. Her v. Regions Financial Corp., No. 06-2178, 2008 WL 2370942 (W.D. Ark. Jun. 3, 2008) (FSA guaranteed loans)  Text

Her v. Regions Fin. Corp., No. 07-2017, 2008 WL 1697470 (W.D. Ark. Apr. 9, 2008) (suit on a guaranteed loan)

Dismuke v. Connor, Nos. 05-CV-1003, 05-CV-10042007 WL 4463567 (W.D. Ark. Dec. 14, 2007) (discrimination suit against FSA)   Text

United States v. Fink, No. CIV 04-4130, 2007 WL 4287648 (D.S.D. Nov. 30, 2007) (acceleration of loans and foreclosure)

Wilkinson v. United States, No. 1:03-cv-02, 2007 WL 3544062 (D.N.D. Nov. 9, 2007) (tort suit against FSA)   Text

United States v. Anderson, No. 2:04-cv-121, 2007 WL 2126871 (D.N.D. Jul. 23, 2007) (delinquent loans)   Text

United States v. Cranmore, No. 8:06CV349, 2007 WL 2011259 (D. Neb. Jul. 6, 2007) (default on FSA loans)

Plains Commerce Bank v. Long Family Land & Cattle Co., Inc., 491 F.3d 878 (8th Cir. 2007) (discrimination in lending to Native Americans)   Text

U.S. v. Neff, No. 4:05-cv-128, 2007 WL 776532 (D. N.D. Mar. 12, 2007) (foreclosure on FSA loans)

Davies v. Johanns, 477 F.3d 968 (8th Cir. 2007) (shared appreciation agreements)   Text

In re Rice, 357 B.R. 514 (B.A.P. 8th Cir. 2006) (bankruptcy with a guaranteed loan)   Text

U.S. v. Wilson, No. 06-CV-1021, 2006 WL 3462126 (W.D. Ark. Nov. 30, 2006) (foreclosure on a FSA loan)

U.S. v. Marshall, No. 06-CV-4017, 2006 WL 2850039 (W.D. Ark. Oct. 3, 2006) (foreclosure on FSA loan)

U.S. v. Schilling, 454 F.Supp.2d 831 (N.D. Iowa 2006) (enforcing lien from FSA loan)   Text

Miller v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 2:06CV0004MLM, 2006 WL 2707358 (E.D. Mo. Sep. 19, 2006) (acceleration of loan)   Text

United States v. Rice, 449 F.3d 887 (8th Cir. 2006) (false statements and fraud)  Text

In re Woodrow, No. 05-32145, 2006 WL 4392691 (Bankr. D.N.D. May 26, 2006) (default on FSA and FSA guaranteed loans)

United States v. Hafner, 421 F.Supp.2d 1220 (D.N.D. 2006) (default on FSA loan)   Text

United States v. Miller, 395 F.Supp.2d 875 (D.N.D. 2005) (injunction to prevent the disposition of collateral)   Text

Nelson v. Farm Credit Servs. of N.D., PCA, 380 F.Supp.2d 1061 (D.N.D. 2005) (alleged violation in the Agricultural Credit Act)   Text

United States v. Fink, 393 F.Supp.2d 935 (D.S.D. 2005) (foreclosure on FSA loan)   Text

In re Owens, 322 B.R. 411 (Bankr. E.D. Ark. 2005) (dischargeability and the intent to deceive)   Text

Davies v. Johanes, 409 F. Supp. 2d 1150 (W.D. Mo. 2005) (recapture under shared appreciation agreement)  Text

Farm Credit Midsouth, PCA v. Farm Fresh Catfish Co., 371 F.3d 450 (8th Cir. 2004) (federal farm products rule)  Text

Varner v. Peterson Farms, 371 F.3d 1011 (8th Cir. 2004) (suit against lender after failure of a CAFO)   Text

United States v. Woods, No. 02-1411, 2004 WL 790332 (D. Minn. Mar. 31, 2004) (default on a FSA loan)   Text

In re Damrow Cattle Co., Inc., 300 B.R. 479 (Bankr. D. Neb. 2003) (ag liens in bankruptcy)   Text

In re Logue, 294 B.R. 59 (B.A.P. 8th Cir. 2003) (sale of collateral without approval)   Text

Stahl v. Veneman, 327 F.3d 697 (8th Cir. 2003) (shared appreciation agreement)  Text

Baker v. Veneman, 256 F.Supp.2d 999 (E.D. Mo. 2003) (foreclosure on FSA loan)   Text

United States v. Jacobsen, 319 F.3d 323 (8th Cir. 2002) (loan foreclosure)   Text

Bukaske v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 193 F.Supp.2d 1162 (D.S.D. 2002) (shared appreciation agreement)  Text

Lane v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 294 F.3d 1001 (8th Cir. 2002) (equal opportunity to credit lawsuit)   Text

Stahl v. Veneman, No. A3-01-85, 2002 WL 1173556 (D.N.D. May 20, 2002) (shared appreciation agreement)

Stahl v. Veneman, A3-01-85, 2001 WL 1820378 (D. N.D. Aug. 22, 2001) (shared appreciation agreement)

United States v. Sather, 131 F. Supp. 2d 1146 (D. S.D. 2001) (FSA’s suit to collect on notes; statute of limitations)   Text

In re Vote, 99-31487, 2001 WL 1891451 (Bankr. D. N.D. Feb. 15, 2001) (whether FSA’s security interest was perfected)

Viers v. Glickman, 4-99-CV-90431, 2000 WL 33363197 (S.D. Iowa Nov. 28, 2000) (shared appreciation agreements; attorney’s fees)

In re Krause, 99-31847, 2000 WL 33792713 (Bankr. D. N.D. Sept. 8, 2000) (FSA’s right of setoff)

United States v. Lylalele, Inc., 221 F.3d 1345 (8th Cir. 2000) (mortgage foreclosure action by FSA)

Lane v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 187 F.3d 793 (8th Cir. 1999) (challenging FmHA’s denial of farm loan servicing)  Text

In re Wells, 97-30835, 1998 WL 34016427 (Bankr. D. N.D. Jan. 29, 1998) (dischargeability of debt)

Lane v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 120 F.3d 106 (8th Cir. 1997) (challenging FmHA’s denial of farm loan servicing)  Text

Lane v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 929 F. Supp. 1290 (D. N.D. 1996) (challenging FmHA’s denial of farm loan servicing)  Text

In re Tunnissen, 216 B.R. 834 (Bankr. D. S.D. 1996) (shared appreciation agreement)  Text

In re Roso, 76 F.3d 179 (8th Cir. 1996) (dispute over FmHA interest rates)   Text

In re Foust, 52 F.3d 766 (8th Cir. 1995) (willfull and malicious conversion of the FmHA’s collateral)  Text


 

NINTH CIRCUIT

Harmon v. United States Dep’t of Agric., No. 14-35228 (9th Cir. Dec. 22, 2016). (FSA determination of farmer eligibility) Text

Boresek v. US Dep’t of Agric., 109 F. Supp. 3d 1338 (D. Or. 2015). (FSA senior interest; equitable subrogation) Text

In re Kimmes, 528 B.R. 436 (D. Idaho 2015)(insufficient funds fees) Text

Sweeney v.  Inspector General of U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 14-mc-00054 LJO GSA (E.D. Cal. Oct. 20, 2014). (USDA may access financial records upon request for operating loan) Text

Shiplet v. Veneman, 620 F.Supp.2d 1203 (D. Mont. 2009) (failed to prove qualified for credit and similarly situated received credit; ECOA)  Text

Adams v. United States, No. CIV S-04-0979-RRB-CMK, 2009 WL 395192 (E.D. Cal. Feb. 17, 2009) (civil rights violations in lending)

United States v. Pritchett Farms, Inc., No. CV-07-3090-FVS, 2008 WL 4282754 (E.D. Wash. Sept. 17, 2008) (foreclosure of mortgage)

United States v. Anderson, No. C05-1576JLR, 2008 WL 3244148 (W.D. Wash. Aug. 6, 2008) (foreclosure of real estate mortgage)  Text

Foster Poultry Farms, Inc. v. Suntrust Bank, No. 1:04-cv-5513 OWW SMS, 2008 WL 2782835 (E.D. Cal. Jul, 14, 2008) (breach of confidentiality agreement in loan)

In re Marble, No. 06-40696-JDP, 2008 WL 2705185 (Bankr. D. Idaho Jul. 1, 2008) (FSA breach of operating loan agreement)

Ball v. Johanns, No. CIV. S-07-1190 LKK/DAD, 2008 WL 269069 (E.D. Cal. Jan. 29, 2008) (suit to recover a guaranteed loss claim paid to the plaintiff)

Shiraishi v. United States, No. 06-00600 EFS-LEK, 2007 WL 2263071 (D. Haw. Aug. 3, 2007) (shared appreciation agreement)

In re Central Valley Processing, Inc., No. KDG-44, 2007 WL 840500 (Bankr. E.D. Cal. Mar. 16, 2007) (bankruptcy and agricultural liens)

United States v. The Unknown Heirs, Devisees, Successors in Interest and Claimants to the estate of Charles W. Steiner, No. CV-05-266-S-BLW, 2007 WL 1381808 (D. Idaho Mar. 8, 2007) (defaulted loan)   Text

United States v. Michael C., No. CV-0503150RHW, 2007 WL 445932 (E.D. Wash. Feb. 7, 2007) (submitting fraudulent loan information)

Ash-Will Farms, L.C. v. Leachman Cattle Co., No. CV-05-44-BLG-RFC, 2006 WL 3827453 (D. Mont. Dec. 27, 2006) (shared appreciation agreement)

Renteria v. United States, 452 F.Supp.2d 910 (D. Ariz. 2006) (suit against FSA for negligent loan processing)   Text

Fed. Agric. Mortgage Corp. v. It’s a Jungle Out There, Inc., No. C 03-3721 VRW, 2005 WL 3325051 (N.D. Cal. Dec. 7, 2005) (breach of contract claims)

Pauly v. United States Dep’t of Agric, 348 F.3d 1143 (9th Cir. 2003) (shared appreciation agreements)  Text

McBride Cotton & Cattle Corp. v. Veneman, 296 F.Supp.2d 1125 (D. Ariz. 2003) (offset on FSA loans)   Text

McBride Cotton & Cattle Corp. v. Veneman, 290 F.3d 973 (9th Cir. 2002) (offset of farm program payments against delinquent FSA loans)   Text

Nichols v. Glickman, 156 F. Supp. 2d 1173 (D. Or. 2001) (dispute over the leaseback-buyback process)  Text

Lazy D Diamond Ranch, Inc. v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 4 Fed. Appx. 418 (9th Cir. 2001) (offset of farm program payments against delinquent FSA loans)

McBride Cotton & Cattle Corp. v. Glickman, 99-0824-PHX-ROS, 2000 WL 34227966 (D. Ariz. Sept. 25, 2000) (offset of farm program payments against delinquent FSA loan)

In re Moncur, 98-03213, 1999 WL 33287727 (Bankr. D. Idaho May 27, 1999) (write-down program)

Francis v. United States, Acting through Farm Serv. Agency, 142 F.3d 443 (9th Cir. 1998) (alleged negligence in processing of a loan)

Grinstead v. United States, 122 F.3d 1071 (9th Cir. 1997) (challenging FmHA’s denial of loan servicing)

Hilderbrand v. United States, 905 F. Supp. 774 (E.D. Cal. 1995) (challenging FmHA’s denial of debt restructuring)  Text


 

TENTH CIRCUIT

In re George Love Farming, LC, No. 10-4076, 2011 WL 880285 (10th Cir. March 15, 2011) (farmer-debtor inappropriately withdrew funds during bankruptcy)

In re Stuart, No. 09-8022-TRC, 2010 WL 3860734 (Bankr. E.D. Okla. Sept. 24, 2010) (rescinded mortgage involving FSA loan)

Kroskob v. USDA, No. 09-1209, 2010 WL 1981013 (10th Cir. May 19, 2010) (restructuring FSA loans)  Text

United States v. Bowling, No. 08-6184, 2009 WL 2809418 (10th Cir. Sept. 3, 2009) (conviction for bank fraud; failure to make payments)  Text

In re George Love Farming, LC, 06-20612, 2008 WL 623391 (Bankr. D. Utah Mar. 6, 2008) (subordinating crop liens)

Harts v. Johanns, 433 F.Supp.2d 1251 (D. Kansas 2006) (shared appreciation agreements)  Text

In re Hagedorn, Nos. 02-40505, 02-7033, 2004 WL 2040909 (Bankr. D. Kan. May 20, 2004) (shared appreciation agreements

In re Myers, 362 F.3d 667 (10th Cir. 2004) (setoff of FSA loans)   Text

Guarantee State Bank v. Farm Serv. Agency of U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 68 Fed. Appx. 134 (10th Cir. 2003) (lender breached the terms of a guaranteed loan)

Jones v. Glickman, 42 F.App’x 292 (10th Cir. 2002) (equal opportunity to credit lawsuit)

In re Pelton, 01-20895, 2001 WL 1739175 (Bankr. D. Wyo. Dec. 7, 2001) (redemption of a foreclosed mortgage)

Gibson v. Glickman, 15 Fed. Appx. 749 (10th Cir. 2001) (FmHA’s denial of loan restructuring)

Shore Ltd. Operating Partn. v. Veneman, 3 Fed. Appx. 924 (10th Cir. 2001) (denial of applications for emergency and operating farm loans)

United States v. McCall, 235 F.3d 1211 (10th Cir. 2000) (foreclosure on loan)   Text

Lewis v. Glickman, 104 F. Supp. 2d 1311 (D. Kan. 2000) (offset government payment against delinquent FSA loan)   Text

United States v. Wells, 96-1028-JTM, 1998 WL 47799 (D. Kan. Jan. 30, 1998) (alleged FmHA’s negligence in failure to obtain loan commitments)

In re Buckner, 211 B.R. 46 (Bankr. D. Kan. 1997) (seeking set off against debts owed to the FmHA)   Text

United States v. Renner, CIV. A. 95-1142, 1996 WL 137834 (D. Kan. Feb. 14, 1996) (foreclosure of a real estate mortgage)


 

ELEVENTH CIRCUIT

Blue Horizon of NWF Inc. v. Joseph D. Senn (In re Senn), Bankr. No. 08-10175-WRS, Adv. No. 08-1087-WRS, 2010 WL 582545 (Bankr. M.D. Ala. Feb. 11, 2010) (no promissory fraud)  Text

Blocker v. Wyatt, No. 609CV052, 2009 WL 2340700 (S.D. Ga. July 27, 2009) (denying appellate stay of foreclosure)  Text

Sanders v. Vilsack, No. 7:08-cv-126(HL), 2009 WL 1370919 (M.D. Ga. May 14, 2009) (discrimination in FSA lending in violation of EOCA)  Text

In re Baggett Bros. Farm, Inc., No. 08-15336, 2009 WL 454923 (11th Cir. Feb. 25, 2009) (farm had not satisfied debt to cooperative)  Text

Robinson v. Schafer, No. 7:07-cv-167 (HL), 2008 WL 1995354 (M.D. Ga. May 6, 2008) (discrimination on farm ownership loans)

Powers v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 5:04-cv-526-Oc-10GRJ, 2006 WL 2735155 (M.D. Fla. Sep. 25, 2006) (denial of a beginning farmer loan)   Text

In re Alexander, 329 B.R. 919 (Bankr. M.D. Ga. 2005) (insurance proceeds during bankruptcy)  Text

Short v. Allstate Credit Bureau, 370 F.Supp.2d 1173 (M.D. Ala. 2005) (FSA requesting a credit report on a spouse without permission)   Text

In re Gordon, 293 B.R. 817 (Bankr. M.D. Ga. 2003) (debtor’s obligations to an agricultural lender were dischargeable)  Text


 

D.C. CIRCUIT

Hildebrandt v. Vilsack, 102 F. Supp. 3d 318 (D.C. 2015). (USDA racial discrimination; loan refusal) Text

Enter. Nat’l Bank v. Vilsack, 568 F.3d 229 (D.C. Cir. 2009) (reduction in payment of guaranteed loan by USDA warranted)  Text

Williams v. Vilsack, 620 F.Supp.2d 40 (D.D.C. 2009) (claim of discrimination in declining for FSA loan)  Text

Pigford v. Vilsack, 613 F.Supp.2d 78 (D.D.C. 2009) (relatedness of unsuccessful claims to successful claims for EAJA and EOCA attorney’s fees)  Text

Benoit v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., 577 F.Supp.2d 12 (D.D.C. 2008) (ECOA claims; lack of subject matter)  Text

Williams v. Johanns, 563 F.Supp.2d 27 (D.D.C. 2008) (denial of a farm loan and a suit under the EOCA)  Text

Williams v. Johanns, 498 F.Supp.2d 113 (D.D.C. 2007) (suit under the Equal Opportunity to Credit Act)   Text

Williams v. Johanns, 235 F.R.D. 116 (D.D.C. 2006) (suit under the Equal Opportunity to Credit Act)

Love v. Johanns, 439 F.3d 723 (D.C. Cir. 2006) (gender discrimination suit against FSA)   Text

LA Fed. Land Bank Ass’n v. Farm Credit Admin., 336 F.3d 1075 (D.C. Cir. 2003) (FCA must post comments on rules)  Text

Shaffer v. Veneman, 325 F.3d 370 (D.C. Cir. 2003) (jurisdiction under the Equal Opportunity to Credit Act)  Text

In re Veneman, 309 F.3d 789 (D.C. Cir. 2002) (discrimination suit against FSA)   Text

Garcia v. Veneman, 211 F.R.D. 15 (D.D.C. 2002) (discrimination suit against the FSA)

Keepseagle v. Veneman, CIV.A.9903119EGS1712, 2001 WL 34676944 (D. D.C. Dec. 12, 2001) (race discrimination suit against the USDA)

Cerniglia v. Glickman, 118 F. Supp. 2d 27 (D. D.C. 2000) (denial of application for servicing of FSA’s loans)   Text

Pigford v. Glickman, 206 F.3d 1212 (D.C. Cir. 2000) (alleging racial discrimination in violation of the ECOA)  Text

Pigford v. Glickman, 185 F.R.D. 82 (D. D.C. 1999) (alleging racial discrimination in violation of the ECOA)

Indep. Bankers Ass’n of Am. v. Farm Credit Admin., 164 F.3d 661 (D.C. Cir. 1999) (challenging validity of FCA’s regulations)   Text

Pigford v. Glickman, 182 F.R.D. 341 (D. D.C. 1998) (suing USDA for discrimination in handling of discrimination complaints)

Williams v. Glickman, CIV.A. 95-1149 TAF, 1997 WL 198110 (D. D.C. Apr. 15, 1997) (discrimination claim against FmHA)

Williams v. Glickman, 936 F. Supp. 1 (D. D.C. 1996) (discrimination claim against FmHA)  Text


 

FEDERAL CIRCUIT

Stovall v. United States, 94 Fed. Cl. 336 (Fed. Cl. 2010) (action by African-American farmer alleging race discrimination claim against FSA)  Text

Sageman v. United States, 82 Fed. Cl. 367 (Fed. Cl. 2008) (suit over threatened foreclosure)

Esch v. United States, 77 Fed. Cl. 582 (Fed. Cl. 2007) (offsetting loan debts with farm program payments)

Stovall v. United States, 71 Fed. Cl. 696 (Fed. Cl. 2006) (discrimination suit against FSA)

Hall v. United States, 69 Fed. Cl. 51 (Fed. Cl. 2005) (jurisdiction over discrimination suit settlement)

Allen v. United States, 2005 WL 6112631 (Fed. Cl. 2005) (farm ownership loan suit against FSA)

Baker v. U.S., 00-754C, 2001 WL 1136011 (Fed. Cl. 2001) (delay in issuing loan guarantee; breach of contract)

Little v. United States, 95-589 C, 2001 WL 280228 (Fed. Cl. Mar. 19, 2001) (FmHA’s alleged breach of lender’s agreement)

Boers v. U.S., 96-509C, 1999 WL 722313 (Fed. Cl. 1999) (offset of DIPP payments against FmHA loans)

Farmers & Merchants Bank of Eatonton, Georgia v. U.S., 97-621C, 1999 WL 72774 (Fed. Cl. 1999) (breach of a loan note guarantee issued by FSA)

First Interstate Bank of Billings v. U.S., 61 F.3d 876 (Fed. Cir. 1995) (action against FmHA to recover on farm loan guaranty)  Text

Peoples Nat. Bank, Kingfisher, Okla. v. United States, 53 F.3d 345 (Fed. Cir. 1995) (foreclosure on collateral)


 

TAX COURT

Blasius v. Comm’r, T.C.M. (CCH) 2005-214 (T.C. 2005) (loan origination fees can be deducted rather than capitalized)  Text


 

ALABAMA

Foster v. Hacienda Nirvana, Inc., 32 So.3d 1256 (Ala. 2009) (failure to pay on promissory note; statute of limitations)  Text

Flying J Fish Farms v. Peoples Bank of Greensboro, 12 So.3d 1185 (Ala. 2008) (fraudulent concealment and breach of fiduciary claims against debtor’s bank)  Text

SouthTrust Bank v. Bowen, 959 So.2d 624 (Ala. 2006) (compelling arbitration in farm loan case)   Text


 

ARKANSAS

Williams v. Liberty Bank, 382 S.W.3d 726, 2011 Ark. App. 220 (Ct. App. 2011) (Bank perfected security interest on debtor’s crop) Text

Combs v. Stewart, 288 S.W.3d 574 (Ark. 2008) (estate responsible for farm debt)  Text

Looney v. Raby, 268 S.W.3d 345 (Ark. Ct. App. 2007) (Farm Mediation Act)   Text

First Nat. Bank of DeWitt v. Cruthis, 203 S.W.3d 88 (Ark. 2005) (breach of contract and conversion)   Text


 

COLORADO

Premier Farm Credit, PCA v. W-Cattle, LLC, 155 P.3d 504 (Colo. Ct. App. 2006) (foreclosure on loan)   Text

Elrick v. Merrill, 10 P.3d 689 (Colo. App. 2000) (foreclosure of FSA mortgage)  Text


 

DELAWARE

U.S. Dep’t of Agric., Farmers Home Admin. v. Brown, 2006 WL 2442025 (Del. Super. Ct. 2006) (loan foreclosure)


 

GEORGIA

Farm Credit v. Easom Peanut, 718 S.E.2d 590(Ga. Ct. App. 2011) (possession of security interest in crop sales; bank’s interest superior to growers’ interest) Text

Bank of Dawson v. Worth Gin Co., Inc., 671 S.E.2d 279 (Ga. Ct. App. 2008) (knowledge of bank’s security interest)  Text

Johnson v. AgSouth Farm Credit, 600 S.E.2d 664 (Ga. Ct. App. 2004) (surety for farm loan)   Text

Jordan v. Tri County AG, Inc., 546 S.E.2d 528 (Ga. Ct. App. 2001) (action for repayment of a debt)   Text


 

IDAHO

Shore v. Peterson, 204 P.3d 1114 (Idaho 2009) (accord and satisfaction of a debt)  Text

Riley v. W.R. Holdings, LLC, 138 P.3d 316 (Idaho 2006) (redemption of a foreclosed mortgage)   Text

E. Idaho Agric. Credit Ass’n v. Neibaur, 987 P.2d 314 (Idaho 1999) (foreclosure on mortgages)  Text


 

ILLINOIS

In re Estate of Funk, 849 N.E.2d 366 (Ill. 2006) (priority of payment of loan after death)  Text


 

INDIANA

A&M Farm Ctr., Inc. v. AGCO Fin., LLC, No. 64A03-0908-CV-394, 2010 WL 445086 (Ind. Ct. App. Feb. 9, 2010) (authority to bind principle to security agreement)  Text

Johnson v. Johnson, 920 N.E.2d 253 (Ind. 2010) (renewing line of credit)  Text

Troxel Equipment Co. v. Limberlost Bancshares, 833 N.E.2d 36 (Ind. Ct. App. 2005) (collateral for farm loan was disposed of)   Text

Farm Credit Servs. of Mid-America, FLCA v. Tucker, 792 N.E.2d 565 (Ind. Ct. App. 2003) (foreclosure on loan)   Text


 

IOWA

Klinge v. Luana Savings Bank, No. 09-1856, 2010 WL 4140463 (Iowa Ct. App. Oct. 20, 2010) (breach of contract regarding agricultural loan rate)  Text

Rabo AgServices, Inc. v. Dallas Collins Farm P’ship, No. 07-1547, 2009 WL 139496 (Iowa Ct. App. Jan. 22, 2009) (enforcement of guaranty of a loan)  Text

Diaz v. Thompson, 691 N.W.2d 744 (Iowa Ct. App. 2004) (mediation requirement for defaulting farm borrowers)   Text

Kamerick v. Marion County State Bank, 2003 WL 23006949 (Table) (Iowa Ct. App. 2003) (homestead exemption and farm operating loans)

Garland v. Branstad, 648 N.W.2d 65 (Iowa 2002) (foreclosure on a farm loan)   Text

Kent Feeds, Inc. v. Manthei, 646 N.W.2d 87 (Iowa 2002) (Iowa’s mandatory mediation statute for farm loans)   Text


 

KANSAS

Sunflower Bank, N.A. v. Kindsvater, 144 P.3d 81 (Table) (Kan. Ct. App. 2006) (release of mortgage covering a farm loan)   Text

Bittel v. Farm Credit Services of Cent. Kansas, 962 P.2d 491 (Kan. 1998) (breach of an alleged oral agreement to renew a farm loan)  Text


 

KENTUCKY

Jones v. PBK Bank, 2008 WL 2696232 (Ky. Ct. App. 2008) (release of mortgage securing real estate)   Text


 

LOUISIANA

Morgan v. Pardue, 206 So.3d 280 (La. Ct. App. Dec. 7, 2016) (Conservation Reserve Program) Text

Hibernia Nat. Bank v. Taylor, 901 So.2d 574 (La. Ct. App. 2005) (foreclosure of loan and release of lien)   Text

First South Farm Credit, ACA v. Gailliard Farms, Inc., 880 So. 2d 223 (La. Ct. App. 2004) (personal liability for debt)  Text

Fortenberry v. Hibernia Nat. Bank, 852 So.2d 1221 (La. Ct. App. 2003) (oral promise to extend farm loan)   Text


 

MAINE

Maine Farmers Exch., Inc. v. Farm Credit of Maine, A.C.A., 789 A.2d 85 (Me. 2002) (set off against crop loans)  Text

Fleet Bank of Maine v. Harriman, 721 A.2d 658 (Me. 1998) (seeking to foreclose on loan guaranteed by FmHA)  Text


 

MICHIGAN

McMahon v. McMahon, 2007 WL 3274862 (Mich. Ct. App. 2007) (default on an agricultural loan)

Gore v. Flagstar Bank, FSB, 711 N.W.2d 330 (Mich. 2006) (promissory estoppel and farm loans)   Text

Shoaff v. Baldwin, 2005 WL 267796 (Mich. Ct. App. 2005) (default on loan and undersecured mortgage)

Curry v. Citizens Bank, 211104, 2000 WL 33419421 (Mich. Ct. App. May 23, 2000) (loss claim under the loan note guarantee)

Farm Credit Services of Michigan’s Heartland, P.C.A. v. Weldon, 591 N.W.2d 438 (Mich. App. 1998) (foreclosure of mortgage; motion to recover collateral)  Text


 

MINNESOTA

Midcountry Bank v. Anderson, No. A13-0925 (Minn. Ct. App. Dec. 23, 2013) (qualified lenders) Text

Gerlach v. Kurowski, No. A09-1839, 2010 WL 3000177 (Minn. Ct. App. Aug. 3, 2010) (meaning of term “feed bill” in mortgage agreement)  Text

Minnwest Bank M.V. v. Molenaar, No. 108-1875, 2009 WL 3172164 (Minn. Ct. App. Oct. 6, 2009) (obtaining repayment of an unsecured loan through property)  Text

Overman v. Minnwest Bank South, 2008 WL 2574461 (Minn. Ct. App. 2008) (failure of a mortgage secured by the homestead)  Text

Wieneke v. United Prairie Bank, 2007 WL 2107491 (Minn. Ct. App. 2007) (default on a farm loan)   Text

Agcountry Farm Credit Servs., FLCA v. Oelke, 2005 WL 1950153 (Minn. Ct. App. 2005) (enforcement of a guarantee)   Text

American State Bank of Olivia v. Ladwig & Ladwig, Inc., 646 N.W.2d 241 (Minn. Ct. App. 2002) (foreclosure on collateral)   Text


 

MISSISSIPPI

Ruff v. Estate of Ruff, 989 So.2d 366 (Miss. 2008) (denial of temporary injunction to prevent foreclosure)  Text


 

MISSOURI

Chapman v. New Mac Elec. Coop., Inc., 260 S.W.3d 890 (Mo. Ct. App. 2008) (stray voltage)  Text


 

MONTANA

Baltrusch v. Baltrusch, 190 P.3d 1034 (Mont. 2008) (failed partnership assigning debts and assets to the individuals)  Text

Stockman Bank of Montana v. Mon-Kota, Inc., 180 P.3d 1125 (Mont. 2008) (priority of liens)   Text

AgAmerica, FCB v. Robson, 901 P.2d 100 (Mont. 1995) (failure to restructure a distressed farm loan)  Text


 

NEBRASKA

Mansfield v. Federal Land Bank of Omaha, No. 4: 14CV3232 (D. Neb. Jan. 25, 2016) (Interpretation of Nebraska’s dominant mineral statute) Text

First Nat. Bank of Osceola v. Gabel, 2003 WL 21146098 (Neb. Ct. App. 2003) (foreclosure on mortgage)

Petersen v. Farm Credit Services of the Midlands, A-98-514, 1999 WL 703623 (Neb. Ct. App. Sept. 7, 1999) (default on an agricultural loan)


 

NEW YORK

Sears v. First Pioneer Farm Credit, 46 A.D.3d 1282, 2007 WL 4531159 (N.Y. App. Div. 2007) (suit against the guaranteed lender for fraud, negligence, and breach of several other federal duties)   Text

HSBC Bank USA v. Merrill, 37 A.D.3d 899, 830 N.Y.S.2d 598 (N.Y. App. Div. 2007) (foreclosure of FSA guaranteed loans)   Text

United States v. Lyons, 292 A.D.2d 683 (N.Y. App. Div. 2002) (foreclosure on loan)   Text


 

NORTH DAKOTA

Horob v. Farm Credit Servs. of N.D., 777 N.W.2d 611 (N.D. 2010) (no wrongful refusal to release lien)  Text

Stockman Bank of Mont. v. AGSCO, Inc., 728 N.W.2d 142 (N.D. 2007) (priority of ag liens)   Text

Stockman Bank of Mont. v. AGSCO, Inc., 727 N.W.2d 742 (N.D. 2007) (priority of ag liens)   Text

First State Bank v. Moen Enterprises, 529 N.W.2d 887 (N.D. 1995) (foreclose on mortgages and security interests)  Text


 

OHIO

Ohio Farm Bureau Fed’n, Inc. v. Amos, 2004 WL 2003087 (Ohio Ct. App. 2004) (foreclosure on peat farming loans)   Text

Farm Credit Services of Mid-Am. v. Runyan, 98CA28, 1999 WL 335124 (Ohio Ct. App. May 28, 1999) (foreclosure on loan)


 

OKLAHOMA

Farm Credit Servs. of Am., Inc. v. Wilson, No. 107471, 2010 WL 5791563 (Ok. Ct. App. Sept. 29, 2010) (buyers of planter took planter subject to creditor’s security interest)

Keota Mills & Elevator v. Gamble, — P.3d —, 2010 OK 12 (Okla. 2010) (action on promissory note barred by statute of limitations)  Text

Christian v. First Capital Bank, 147 P.3d 908 (Okla. Civ. App. 2006) (unjust enrichment with guaranteed loans)   Text


 

SOUTH DAKOTA

Dykstra v. Page Holding Co., 766 N.W.2d 491 (S.D. 2009) (bank did not breach fiduciary duty or interfere with business relationship when ended banking relationship)  Text

Fin-Ag, Inc. v. Cimpl’s, Inc., 754 N.W.2d 1 (S.D. 2008) (conversion of security interest in cattle)  Text

Fin-Ag, Inc. v. Pipestone Livestock Auction Market, Inc., 745 N.W.2d 29 (S.D. 2008) (conversion of a security interest by an auction barn)

Farm Credit Servs. of Am. v. Dougan, 704 N.W.2d 24 (S.D. 2005) (foreclosure on loan)   Text

Consol. Nutrition, L.C. v. IBP, Inc., 669 N.W.2d 126 (S.D. 2003) (right to setoff)  Text


 

TEXAS

Terra XXI, Ltd. v. Harmon, 279 S.W.3d 781 (Tex. App. 2007) (suit against trustee in foreclosure action)   Text

Ortega v. City Nat’l Bank, 97 S.W.3d 765 (Tex. App. 2003) (enforcing participation in federal loan guarantee program)  Text

Scott v. Commercial Servs. of Perry, Inc., 121 S.W.3d 26 (Tex. App. 2003) (fraudulent guaranteed loan)   Text

Ford v. City State Bank of Palacios, 44 S.W.3d 121 (Tex. App. 2001) (lender liability claim relating to agricultural loans)  Text


 

UTAH

Lewiston State Bank v. Greenline Equip., L.L.C., 147 P.3d 951 (Utah Ct. App. 2006) (refinancing loans on farm equipment secured with a PMSI)   Text


 

WISCONSIN

State v. Koch, 617 N.W.2d 907 (Wis. App. 2000) (alleged fraud in obtaining FSA loans)


 

WYOMING

Christensen v. Oedekoven, 888 P.2d 228 (Wyo. 1995) (redemption of a foreclosed mortgage)  Text