QBOP: Quota Buyout for Peanuts

QLP: Quality Loss Program

QR: Quantitative restriction(s)

QSP: Quality Samples Program

QTV: Qualified Through Verification

Qualified beginning farmer and rancher: See Beginning; beginning farmer(s) and (or) rancher(s) (qualified).

Qualified fisherman (fishermen): Under the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program, a person whose catch competes in the marketplace with like or directly competitive aquacultural products and who reports net fishing income to the IRS on Schedules C or C-EZ (Form 1040).

Qualified supplying country (sugar): Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1403), any foreign country that is allowed to export cane sugar to the U.S. under an agreement.

Qualified Through Verification (QTV): Since January 1996, an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) voluntary, user-fee-based, pilot program service for the fresh-cut produce industry. Under the QTV, AMS technical specialists work with company management to develop a credibleHazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System for a production facility, and through unannounced on-site audits, verify its continuing effectiveness. Originally called Quality Through Verification, the name was changed to reflect more accurately its emphasis on food wholesomeness.

Qualifying expenditure(s): Under the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000, an expenditure incurred after the issuance of the antidumping duty finding or order or countervailing duty order.

Qualifying loss: The threshold loss required before being eligible for certain crop insurance or emergency assistance programs.

Qualifying natural disaster declaration: Under the Agricultural Assistance Act of 2003 (Division N, Title II, Sec. 203), a natural disaster declared by the Secretary of Agriculture under authority of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Sec. 321(a) (7 U.S.C. § 1961(a)), or a major disaster or emergency designated by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 5121 et seq.).

Qualifying production loss: The threshold loss of normal production that a producer must experience before being eligible to participate in a disaster payments program or receive emergency loans. Normal production is defined as the expected production based on history. See Noninsured (Crop Disaster) Assistance Program (NAP), and Qualifying loss.

Qualitative traits: Those traits in which there are sharp distinctions between phenotypes such as black and white or polled and horned. Usually, only one or a few pairs of genes are involved in the expression of qualitative traits. See Quantitative traits.

Quality grade(s): A measure of overall carcass desirability as determined by a federal grader. The meat quality grades are (a) beef – prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, and cutter and canner; (b) lamb – prime, choice, good, and utility; (c) veal – prime, choice, good, standard, and utility; (d) pork – acceptable and unacceptable; and (e) poultry – A, B, and C. See Quality grade(s) (beef), and Quality grade(s) (pork).

Quality grade(s) (beef): Characteristics that predict the palatability of the lean meat. Eight quality grade designations are applicable to steer and heifer carcasses: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, and cutter and canner. Except for prime, the same designations apply to cow carcasses. The quality grade designations for bullock carcasses are prime, choice, select, standard, and utility. Lower grades (standard, commercial, utility, and cutter and canner) are mainly ground or used inprocessed meat products. USDA prime beef (about two percent of graded beef) has more marbling so it is the most tender and flavorful; however, it is higher in fat content. Most of the graded beef sold in supermarkets is USDA Choice or USDA Select. The protein, vitamin, and mineral content of beef are similar regardless of the grade. See Yield grade (beef).

Quality grade(s) (pork): The quality grade for pork (barrows and gilts) is based on two considerations: quality and expected yield. The general levels of quality recognized are (a) acceptable and (b) unacceptable. Acceptable quality takes into account the characteristics of the lean meat, the degree of external fatness, and the sufficiency of the thickness of the belly. See Yield grade (pork).

Quality loss payments: See Quality Loss Program (QLP), and Quality Loss Program for Apples and Potatoes.

Quality Loss Program (QLP): Farm Service Agency program, authorized by the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, that compensated producers who suffered at least a 20 percent loss in 2000-year crop quality due to weather-related disasters. All crops were eligible except certain specialty crops such as ornamentals, Christmas trees, aquaculture, honey, turfgrass sod, maple sap, and ginseng. Quality losses for apples and potatoes were covered under a separate program. The QLP offered additional payments for crops where the Crop Disaster Program quality payments were inadequate or nonexistent. See Apple Market Loss Assistance Program (AMLAP), and Quality Loss Program for Apples and Potatoes.

Quality Loss Program for Apples and Potatoes: A separate $38 million Quality Loss Program for apples and potatoes. Apple and potato producers who suffered at least a 20 percent loss could file for a quality loss payment for both the 1999 and 2000 crops. Because the total of the claims filed was in excess of $129 million and by statute only $38 million was available for the program, producers were paid 27.8 percent of their qualifying losses.

Quality Samples Program (QSP): program, authorized under the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, through which U.S. agricultural products are provided to foreign importers in order to promote a better understanding and appreciation for their high quality. The program is utilized in markets where the U.S. generally is competitive and has a clear potential for expanding sales.

Quantitative restriction(s) (QR): Explicit limits, or quotas, on the physical amounts of particular commodities that can be imported or exported during a specified time period, usually measured by volume but sometimes by value.

Quantitative traits: Those traits in which there are no sharp distinctions between phenotypes, with a gradual variation from one phenotype to another, such as weaning weight. Usually, many gene pairs are involved, as well as environmental influences. SeeQualitative traits.

Quarantine: Part of the disease and pest control and eradication program. Quarantines can either restrict movement of plants and animals from an area known to be infested with exotic pests or highly virulent diseases, or isolate infected plant and animals within an infected area so as to facilitate successful eradication efforts. Restrictions may also be placed on the movement or use of equipment, facilities, soil, residue, vehicles, buildings, and other articles in an effort to eradicate or control a dangerous disease or pest. See Agricultural Quarantine Inspection program (AQI), and Phytosanitary measure.

Quarantine 37: First established June 1, 1919. The quarantine prevents the importation of most plant material since it restricts importation of soil on the roots. The restrictions are necessary to prevent harmful insects and diseases from entering the U.S.

Quarantine applications: With respect to methyl bromide, treatments to prevent the introduction, establishment and spread of quarantine pests (including diseases) or to ensure their official control where (a) official control is performed by, or authorized by, a national plant, animal, or environmental protection or health authority; and (b) quarantine pests are pests of potential importance to the areas endangered but not yet present there, or present by not widely distributed and being officially controlled.

Quinoa: A weedy, annual, native American crop whose seeds can be used as a grain or as a flour. See Pseudocereal(s).

Quota (dairy): See California milk marketing order.

Quota (peanuts) loan rate: Under the former peanut program, the price-support loan rate for quota peanuts. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 froze the quota loan rate for 1996-2002 at $610 per ton. See Additionals (peanuts) loan rate, andPeanut (price-support) program.

Quota (tobacco): See Marketing quota(s).

Quota buyout: (1) The purchase of marketing quotas by the federal government for the purpose of phasing out such quotas, thus significantly reducing production costs and eventually government outlays. (2) See Compensation for loss of quota asset value (peanuts).

Quota Buyout for Peanuts (QBOP): See Compensation for loss of quota asset value (peanuts).

Quota holder(s) (peanuts): See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).

Quota loss payments: See Tobacco Loss Assistance Program (TLAP), Tobacco Loss Assistance Program 2000 (TLAP 2000), and Tobacco Loss Assistance Program 2001 (TLAP01).

Quota owner(s) (tobacco): The person or entity who owns the land for which a quota is established under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, irrespective of temporary transfers or undermarketings.

Quota peanuts: Under the former peanut program, peanuts eligible for the nonrecourse quota loan rate. See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts), and Peanut (price-support) program.

Quota(s): See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts), Import quota(s), Marketing quota(s), and Tariff-rate quota(s); tariff quota(s).