Animal Welfare

January 1, 1995 – August 16, 2023

This index provides a comprehensive though not necessarily exhaustive compilation of reported and unreported federal and state court decisions involving Animal Welfare that were decided between the dates listed above.  The cases are listed in reverse chronological order. The “Text” link goes to the freely available Google Scholar text of the opinion.  These listings are for educational purposes only, and are not a substitute for legal counsel.


National Pork Producers Counsil v. Ross, 143 S. Ct. 1142 (2023) (Proposition 12. Which forbids the sale of… meat… made from breeding pigs that are confided in a cruel manner, does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause.) Text

National Meat Ass’n v. Harris, 565 U.S. 452 (2012) (FMIA expressly preempts California state law pertaining to slaughterhouses.) Text

United States v. Stevens, 559 U.S. 460 (2010), aff’d, 533 F.3d 218 (3d Cir. 2008) (videos depicting cruelty to animals as free speech)  Text

Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Cmtys. for a Great Oregon, 515 U.S. 687 (1995) (reasonableness of Secretary of Interior’s definition of “harm” in a regulation based on ESA’s definition of “tak[ing]” an endangered or threatened species) Text


Hernández-Gotay v. United States, 985 F.3d 71 (1st Cir. 2021) (Challenge to the constitutionality of § 12616 of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 which bans sponsorship and exhibition of cockfighting) Text

Pina v. Morris, No. 09-11800-RWZ, 2010 WL 3395302 (D. Mass Aug. 26, 2010) (45 counts of animal cruelty for raising malnourished horses) Text

Animal Welfare Inst. v. Martin, 588 F.Supp.2d 70 (D. Me. 2008) (claim that state of Maine violated ESA in establishing regulations for lynx hunting season) Text

Nickerson-Malpher v. Worley, 560 F.Supp.2d 75 (D. Me. 2008) (§ 1983 action against state and federal officials for search and removal of dogs from home) Text

Murphy v. Foster, 518 F.Supp.2d 292 (D. Me. 2007) (challenge to seizure of animals and other property under Maine’s Animal Welfare Act) Text

Bilida v. McLeod, 211 F.3d 166 (1st Cir. 2000) (warrantless search and seizure of pet; pet raccoon is not property for due process purposes) Text

Strahan v. Linnon, 967 F.Supp. 581 (D. Mass. 1997) (ESA; NEPA; Marine Mammal Protection Act; Administrative Procedure Act) Text

United States v. Romano, 929 F.Supp. 502 (D. Mass. 1996) (Lacey Act) Text


Animal Welfare Institute v. Vilsack, 20-CV-6595 (CJS), (W.D.N.Y. 2022) (USDA sued for failing to “downed pigs” and for failing to follow Humane Methods of Slaughter Act mandates) Text

Farm Sanctuary v. United States Department of Agriculture, 545 F. Supp. 3d 50 (W.D.N.Y. 2018) (USDA sued for failing to proactively disclose records relating to the enforcement of the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act and PPIA) Text

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals v. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 60 F.4th 16 (2d Cir. 2023). (Allegation that APHIS violated FOIA for failure to comply, Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2020) Text

Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc. v. U.S. Dep’t of the Interior, No. 18-CV-4596 (VEC), 2020 WL 4605235 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 11, 2020) (DOI’s memorandum on incidental take under MBTA (Jorjani Opinion) unlawful under APA because it is inconsistent with plain language and past agency action) Text

US v. Carrano, 340 F. Supp. 3d 388 (S.D.N.Y. 2018). (Concerning Federal AWA and Elephant Care.) Text

NY Pet Welfare Association v. City of New York, 850 F.3d 79 (2d Cir. 2017). (AWA does not preempt local regulations on animal breeders.) Text

Fabrikant v. French, 691 F. 3d 193 (2d Cir. 2012) (§ 1983 action against not-for-profit animal protection organization) Text

Sheehy v. Wehlage, No. 02-CV-592A, 2004 WL 951367 (W.D.N.Y. Feb. 3, 2004) (Suit claiming that false accusations led to seizure of plaintiff’s cows, which were later auctioned) Text

Farm Sanctuary, Inc. v. Veneman, 212 F.Supp.2d 280 (S.D.N.Y. 2002) (Attempt to obtain declaratory judgment that downed livestock were adulterated under federal law) Text

Atlantic States Legal Found. v. Babbitt, 140 F.Supp.2d 185 (N.D.N.Y. 2001) (standing under Migratory Bird Treaty Act and NEPA) Text

United States v. Bronx Reptiles, Inc., 217 F.3d 82 (2d Cir. 2000) (mens rea requirement for violation of the Lacey Act) Text

Commack Self-Service Kosher Meats, Inc. v. Rubin, 106 F.Supp.2d 445 (E.D.N.Y. 2000) (New York’s kosher laws as violating the Establishment Clause) Text

Moor-Jankowski v. Board of Trs. of New York Univ., No. 96 CIV. 5997(JFK), 1998 WL 474084 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 10, 1998) (care of laboratory animals under the Animal Welfare Act)

United States v. McDougall, 25 F.Supp.2d 85 (N.D.N.Y. 1998) (scope of Lacey Act) Text


Dice v. Johnson, 711 F.Supp.2d 340 (M.D. Pa. 2010) (animal cruelty and defamation) Text

Barber v. Pennsylvania Dep’t Agric., No. 9-1462, 2010 WL 1816760 (W.D. Pa. May 03, 2010) (violation of civil rights in seizure of dogs and closure of kennel)

United States v. Fullmer, 584 F.3d 132 (3d Cir. 2009) (violations of the Animal Enterprise Protection Act) Text

Rivero v. Humane Soc’y of Fayette County, No. 08-793, 2009 WL 18704 (W.D. Pa. Jan. 3, 2009) (violation of civil rights in seizure of dog) Text

Zimmerman v. Wolff, 622 F.Supp.2d 240 (E.D. Pa. 2008) (injunction to prevent seizure of dogs and closing kennel) Text

United States v. Stevens, 533 F.3d 218 (3d Cir. 2008) (videos depicting cruelty to animals as free speech) Text

Allen v. Penn. Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 488 F.Supp.2d 450 (M.D. Pa. 2007) (police power of state humane society) Text

Brown v. Muhlenberg Tp., 269 F.3d 205 (3d Cir. 2001) (police shooting of a dog constitutes a 4th Amendment seizure) Text

Black Hawk v. Pennsylvania, 114 F.Supp.2d 327 (M.D. Pa. 2000) (seizure of an animal used for religious purposes comes under the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause) Text

Hawksbill Sea Turtle v. FEMA, 215 F.3d 1314 (3d Cir. 2000) (Endangered Species Act as applied to Fish and Wildlife Service and FEMA)

Kleissler v. U.S. Forest Service, 183 F.3d 196 (3d Cir. 1999) (National Forest Management Act; NEPA) Text

Paws v. USDA APHIS, No. 95-4719, 1996 WL 524333 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 9, 1996) (Animal Welfare Act provisions for performing elephants)


Hill v. Coggins, 867 F.3d 499 (4th Cir. 2017). (Suit brought under ESA and AWA against Zoo alleging poor treatment of bears). Text

PETA, INC. v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 194 F. Supp. 3d 404 (D.N.C. 2016). (USDA interpretation of AWA entitled to Chevron deference) Text

US v. Gibert, 677 F.3d 613 (4th Cir. 2012). (AWA does not exceed Congressional authority granted by the commerce clause) Text

United States v. Kingrea,573 F.3d 186 (4th Cir. 2009) (running cockfighting operation) Text

George v. Kanawha County Sheriff’s Dep’t, No. 2:08-0141, 2009 WL 273230 (S.D. W.Va. Feb. 3, 2009) (challenging seizure of dog in home without warrant) Text

Moore v. Kempthorne, 464 F.Supp.2d 519 (E.D. Va. 2006) (action for preliminary injunction and TRO in case challenging black bear hunt in National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia) Text

Gibbs v. Babbitt, 214 F.3d 483 (4th Cir. 2000) (regulation limiting the taking of wildlife on private land as valid under Commerce Clause) Text


Terranova v. United States Dep’t of Agric., 820 F. Appx. 279 (5th Cir. 2020) (Court denied petition to review license revocation and fines of tiger/monkey exhibitor where substantial evidence supported USDA/APHIS action) Text

Contender Farms, LLP v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 779 F.3d 258 (5th Cir. 2015). (HPA does not authorize the USDA to create a private enforcement scheme to enforce the act.) Text

Knapp v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 796 F.3d 445 (5th Cir. 2015). (Civil penalty against wildlife dealer was proper). Text

Knaust v. Digesualdo, No. 13-11374 (5th Cir. Oct. 29, 2014). (Plaintiff failed to show constitutional violations by the USDA when seizing her property under the AWA) Text

Hoog-Watson v. Guadalupe County, 591 F.3d 431 (5th Cir. 2009) (warrantless search and seizure of animals) Text

Hastey v. Bush, 82 F. App’x. 370 (5th Cir. 2003) (constitutionality of statute for First Amendment purposes)

Parr v. USDA, 273 F.3d 1095 (5th Cir. 2001) (repeated violations of the Animal Welfare Act)

G. David Westfall Family Ltd. P’ship v. Parks, 248 F.3d 1140 (5th Cir. 2001) (effects of the Fourth, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments on the seizing of livestock)

Brown v. Tull, 218 F.3d 743 (5th Cir. 2000) (qualified immunity for animal control officers searching for and seizing animals on owner’s property)

Shields v. Babbit, 229 F.Supp.2d 638, (W.D. Tex. 2000) (ESA as applied to intrastate species) Text

Brown v. Wilson County, No. SA-97-CA-1473-OG, 1999 WL 33290666 (W.D. Tex. Mar. 13, 1999) (procurement and scope of search warrants for animals)

United States v. Thompson, 118 F.Supp.2d 723 (W.D. Tex. 1998) (Animal Welfare Act’s constitutional status and provisions for animal fighting ventures) Text

In re Wilson, No. Civ.A. 97-2390, 1997 WL 563988 (E.D. La. Sept. 8, 1997) (whether dairy cattle are farming “tools”)

Sierra Club v. Glickman, 974 F.Supp. 905 (E.D. Tex. 1997) (National Forest Management Act) Text

Cathey v. Guenther, 47 F.3d 162 (5th Cir. 1995) (Fourteenth Amendment property rights in a pet) Text

Gall v. City of Vidor, Tex., 903 F.Supp. 1062 (E.D. Tex. 1995) (constitutionality of warrantless search and seizure of dogs on owner’s property) Text


US v. Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders’ and EXH., 263 F. Supp. 3d 679 (M.D. Tenn. 2017). (No entitlement for reimbursement for costs of complying with APHIS subpoenas) Text

Woudenberg v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 794 F.3d 595 (6th Cir. 2015). (Donor’s false certification did not relieve the dealer of liability under the AWA). Text

Wilkins v. Daniels, 744 F.3d 409 (6th Cir. 2014). (The Ohio Dangerous Wild Animal and Restricted Snakes Act did not constitute compelled speech or a violation of freedom of association). Text

Vos v. Cordray, 719 F.Supp.2d 832 (N.D. Ohio 2010) (§1983 action for search and taking of horse) Text

White v. United States, 601 F.3d 545 (6th Cir. 2010) (constitutional challenge to anti-animal-fighting provisions) Text

White v. United States, 2:08-cv-118, 2009 WL 173509 (S.D. Ohio Jan. 26, 2009) (standing to challenge amendments to Animal Welfare Act)

Robinson v. Nash, Civil Action No. 5:06-139-JMH, 2007 WL 634080 (E.D. Ky. Feb. 20, 2007) (constitutional claim for unlawful search and seizure) Text

Hodgins v. USDA, No. 97-3899, 2000 WL 1785733 (6th Cir.) (Animal Welfare Act’s provisions for animal dealers)

Richardson v. Twp. of Brady, 2000 Fed. App. 0215P (6th Cir.) (constitutionality of zoning ordinance affecting the keeping of livestock) Text

Michigan Wolfdog Ass’n v. St. Clair County, 122 F.Supp.2d 794 (E.D. Mich. 2000) (constitutionality of dog breed-specific legislation authorizing warrantless inspection) Text

Newsome v. Erwin, 137 F.Supp.2d 934 (S.D. Ohio 2000) (shooting of pet as violations of owner’s Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments) Text

Longhi v. APHIS, 1999 Fed. App. 0027P (6th Cir.) (piercing the corporate veil of an animal dealer partnership under the Animal Welfare Act)

Volpe Vito, Inc. v. USDA, No. 97-3603, 1999 WL 16562 (6th Cir.) (USDA administrative proceedings enforcing the Animal Welfare Act)

Lowery v. Faires, No. 98-5885, 1999 WL 357767 (6th Cir.) (seizure of cattle without pre-deprivation notice and chance to be heard)

Lowery v. Faires, 57 F.Supp.2d 483 (E.D. Tenn. 1998) (seizure of cattle without pre-deprivation notice and chance to be heard) Text

Stack v. Killian, 1996 Fed. App. 0305P (6th Cir.) (searching for, seizing, and handling animals from an animal shelter)

Morrow v. USDA, No. 94-3793, 1995 WL 523336 (6th Cir.) (Animal Welfare Act provisions for possessing and trafficking exotic animals; USDA administrative hearings related thereto)

Ammon v. Welty, No. 94-6117, 1995 WL 499472 (6th Cir.) (the shooting of a pet dog as a deprivation of property)

Rowland v. USDA, 1995 Fed. App. 0019P (6th Cir.) (Horse Protection Act)


United States v. Berry, 09-CR-30101-MJR, 2010 WL 1882057 (S.D. Ill. May 11, 2010) (sentencing for dog fighting)

Armon v. McHenry County, No. 07 C 50173, 2008 WL 5423573 (N.D. Ill. Dec. 29, 2008) (probable cause to issue warrant to seize animals) Text

McCoy v. Harrison, 341 F.3d 600 (7th Cir. 2003) (§1983 suit for excessive force) Text

Adams v. Connors, No. 01 C 6025, 2002 WL 1827632 (N.D. Ill. Aug 9, 2002) (§1983 action alleging a lack of probable cause for search and seizure)

Siebert v. Severino, 256 F.3d 648 (7th Cir. 2001) (warrantless search of barn and seizure of horses) Text

Kelly v. EPA, 203 F.3d 519 (7th Cir. 2000) (Clean Water Act and wildlife habitat) Text

McCoy v. Harrison, No. 97 C 50402, 2000 WL 713740 (N.D. Ill. May 4, 2000) (Humane Care for Animals Act as mitigating Fourth Amendment violations)

Simmons v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 120 F.3d 644 (7th Cir. 1997) (Clean Water Act’s procedural provisions for protecting threatened and endangered animal species) Text

Porter v. DiBlasio, 93 F.3d 301 (7th Cir. 1996) (terminating animal ownership rights) Text

Campbell v. Chappelow, 95 F.3d 576 (7th Cir. 1996) (awarding neglected animals to humane society which sells them) Text

Hoctor v. USDA, 82 F.3d 165 (7th Cir. 1996) (Administrative Procedure Act requirements for USDA rulemaking promulgating the Animal Welfare Act) Text

United States v. Winnie, 97 F.3d 975 (7th Cir. 1996) (Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; the Endangered Species Act) Text

Wilson v. USDA, 61 F.3d 907 (7th Cir. 1995) (Animal Welfare Act’s provisions for assessing penalties for violations)

United States v. Kuipers, 49 F.3d 1254 (7th Cir. 1995) (evidence required to prove Lacey Act violations) Text

United States v. Hogan, 906 F.Supp. 455 (C.D. Ill. 1995) (duck baiting under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act) Text


Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Vaught, 8 F.4th 714 (8th Cir. 2021). (Animal organizations have standing to challenge “ag gag” law) Text

Kuehl v. Sellner, 887 F.3d 845 (8th Cir. 2018). (Finding that the housing and care of endangered lemurs is not clearly erroneous) Text

McClendon v. Story County Sheriff’s Office, 403 F.3d 510 (8th Cir. 2005) (§1983 action alleging that county seized animals in violation of rights) Text

Slavin v. United States, 403 F.3d 522 (8th Cir. 2005) (challenge to constitutionality of AWA provision on transportation of fighting birds in interstate commerce) Text

United States v. Oliver, 255 F.3d 588 (8th Cir. 2001) (interpreting the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act against the Religious Freedom Restoration Act) Text

Hansen v. USDA, 221 F.3d 1342 (8th Cir. 2000) (temporal requirement for appealing USDA finding of an Animal Welfare Act violation)

United States v. Eagleboy, 200 F.3d 1137 (8th Cir. 1999) (U.S. policy of not enforcing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act against members of federally recognized Indian tribes) Text

Minnesota Humane Soc’y v. Clark, 184 F.3d 795 (8th Cir. 1999) (process for challenging Fish & Wildlife Service permits for the round-up and killing of geese) Text

Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians v. Minnesota, 952 F.Supp. 1362 (D. Minn. 1997) (interpreting state natural resources law against Native American tribal hunting, fishing and gathering treaty rights) Text

Toney v. Glickman, 101 F.3d 1236 (8th Cir. 1996) (Animal Welfare Act provisions regarding animal dealers and evidence sufficient to find violations of such provisions) Text

Lower Brule Sioux Tribe v. South Dakota, 917 F.Supp. 1434 (D. S.D.) 1996 (state jurisdiction versus tribal jurisdiction over hunting and fishing by various people on Native American reservation lands) Text

Mausolf v. Babbitt, 913 F.Supp. 1334 (D. Minn. 1996) (interpreting the ESA against the Constitution and the Administrative Procedure Act) Text


Ass’n des Éleveurs de Canards et d’Oies du Québec v. Bonta, 33 F.4th 1107 (9th Cir. 2022) (Prohibition of in-state sale… resulting from force feeding a bird for purpose of enlarging bird’s liver beyond normal size) Text

Crow Indian Tribe v. United States, 965 F.3d 662 (9th Cir. 2020) (delisting Yellowstone grizzly bears from the ESA was arbitrary and capricious) Text

Animal Legal Defense Fund v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 933 F.3d 1088 (9th Cir. 2019). (Definition of “individual” as used in expediting FOIA request pertains to humans only). Text

Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Wasden, 878 F.3d 1184 (9th Cir. 2018). (Idaho statute criminalizing the recording of animal agriculture operations violated the first amendment.) Text

Missouri ex rel. Koster v. Harris, 847 F.3d 646 (9th Cir. 2016). (Six states sue California over animal welfare standards in egg production.)  Text

Des Eleveurs De Canards Et D’Oies v. Harris, 729 F.3d 937 (9th Cir. 2013). (Statute banning the sale of force fed foi-gras did not violate the dormant commerce clause.). Text

Dunham v. Kootenai County, 690 F. Supp. 2d 1162 (D. Idaho 2010) (conviction for cruelty to horses)  Text

Gardner v. Kootenai County, No. CIV 08-472-BLW, 2009 WL 2392044 (D. Idaho July 31, 2009) (claims of constitutional violations in seizure of animals)

Clem v. Riebe, No. CIV S-08-0013 FCD EFB PS, 2008 WL 5478572 (E.D. Cal. Dec. 31, 2008) (civil rights violations; malicious prosecution)  Text

Ocean Mammal Inst. v. Gates, Civil No. 07-00254-DAE-LEK, 2008 WL 2185180 (D. Haw. May 27, 2008) (claim that the Navy failed to provide NEPA required public notice and opportunity to comment on use of sonar with potential harm to marine mammals)   Text

Natural Resources Def. Council v. Winter, 527 F.Supp.2d 1216 (C.D. Cal. 2008) (challenge to use of sonar with potential harm to marine mammals)

Earth Island Inst. v. Hogarth, 494 F.3d 757 (9th Cir. 2007) (challenge to National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration regulations on allowing tuna purse seine fishing in Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean)  Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Veneman, 469 F.3d 826 (9th Cir. 2006) (claim that Dept. of Agriculture’s decision in primate research was arbitrary and capricious)  Text

Nat’l Res. Def. Council v. U.S. E.P.A., 437 F.Supp.2d 1137 (C.D. Cal. 2006) (motion for judgment in case seeking to compel EPA to promulgate guidelines for storm water discharges)  Text

Bakay v. Yarnes, 431 F.Supp.2d 1103 (W.D. Wash. 2006) (action based on humane society’s euthanasia of cats after seizure by animal control)  Text

Earth Island Inst. v. Evans, 136 Fed. Appx. 34 (9th Cir. 2005) (motion to intervene in suit on effects of purse seine net tuna fishing on dolphins)

Cetacean Cmty. v. Bush, 386 F.3d 1169 (9th Cir. 2004) (challenge to use of sonar with potential harm to marine mammals)   Text

City of Sausalito v. O’Neill, 386 F.3d 1186 (9th Cir. 2004) (action by city against Park Service claiming that use of former military base violated NEPA)  Text

Nat’l Audubon Soc’y, Inc. v. Davis, 307 F.3d 835 (9th Cir. 2002) (challenge to provision of California code which banned the use of any steel-jawed leghold animal trap)   Text

Daugherty v. Costello, 24 Fed. Appx. 684 (9th Cir. 2001) (Fourth Amendment’s effect on warrantless search of fields, barn and home for animals; Sixth Amendment)

Defenders of Wildlife v. Norton, 258 F.3d 1136 (9th Cir. 2001) (procedure for designating a species as threatened under ESA)   Text

Brower v. Evans, 257 F.3d 1058 (9th Cir. 2001) (Secretary of Commerce’s power to change the standard for dolphin-safe tuna fish label)  Text

Cantrell v. City of Long Beach, 241 F.3d 674 (9th Cir. 2001) (standing to bring action challenging the adequacy of Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA)  Text

Kafka v. Hagener, 176 F.Supp.2d 1037 (D. Mont. 2001) (constitutionality of a ballot initiative amending state game farm laws)  Text

Comm. for Idaho’s High Desert v. Collinge, 148 F.Supp.2d 1097 (D. Idaho 2001) (requirements for preliminary injunction against government agency-sponsored predation control program)  Text

Metcalf v. Daley, 214 F.3d 1135 (9th Cir. 2000) (whether various federal agencies violated NEPA in their approval of Native American tribal whaling)   Text

Nat’l Audubon Soc’y v. Davis, 144 F.Supp.2d 1160 (N.D. Cal. 2000) (standing to challenge the constitutionality of a state proposition banning the use of certain wildlife traps and poisons)  Text

United States v. Peterson, 121 F.Supp.2d 1309 (D. Mont. 2000) (treaty-based tribal hunting rights were abrogated in the creation of Glacier National Park)  Text

Forest Guardians v. APHIS, 309 F.3d 1411 (9th Cir. 2002) (federal agencies’ livestock protection predator control found not to be arbitrary and capricious)

Fed’n of Fly Fishers v. Daley, 131 F.Supp.2d 1158 (N.D. Cal. 2000) (ESA procedures for deciding which species to list as threatened)  Text

Hawaii County Green Party v. Clinton, 124 F.Supp.2d 1173 (D. Hawai`i 2000) (legality of sonar defense system under NEPA, ESA and the Marine Mammal Protection Act)  Text

Lang v. USDA, 189 F.3d 473 (9th Cir. 1999) (sufficient evidence to find a violation of the Animal Welfare Act)

Arizona Cattle Growers’ Ass’n v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., No. CIV 99-0673PHX RCB, 1999 WL 33722331 (D. Ariz. Dec. 14, 1999) (ESA)

Ocean Mammal Inst. v. Cohen, 164 F.3d 631 (9th Cir. 1998) (standing to enjoin sonar testing as per the Marine Mammal Protection Act, ESA and NEPA)

Ocean Mammal Inst. v. Cohen, 161 F.3d 631 (9th Cir. 1998) (standing to challenge sonar testing on whales under the National Environmental Policy Act)

United States v. McKittrick, 142 F.3d 1170 (9th Cir. 1998) (creating an experimental species population under the ESA)  Text

Kanoa Inc. v. Clinton, 1 F.Supp.2d 1088 (D. Hawai`i 1998) (evidence required to enjoin sonar testing on whales as per the NEPA, Marine Mammal Protection Act and ESA)  Text

Shuler v. Babbitt, 49 F.Supp.2d 1165 (D. Mont. 1998) (self-defense exception to Endangered Species Act)  Text

Leathem v. United States, 122 F.3d 1072 (9th Cir. 1997) (Animal Enterprise Protection Act; Fourth Amendment claims resulting from search and seizure of animals)

Ellis v. Delude, 122 F.3d 1070 (9th Cir. 1997) (“community caretaking” exception to Fourth Amendment warrant requirement for seizing animals)

United States v. Hugs, 109 F.3d 1375 (9th Cir. 1997) (Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act as interpreted against Native American religious rights)  Text

United States v. Bramble, 103 F.3d 1475 (9th Cir. 1996) (constitutionality of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Eagle Protection Act; warrantless search of home for illegal wildlife parts under the Fourth Amendment)  Text

Hardy v. City of Glendale, 104 F.3d 365 (9th Cir. 1996) (qualified immunity for warrantless search and seizure of an animal; Fourth Amendment and due process actions based thereon)

Marbled Murrelet v. Babbitt, 83 F.3d 1060 (9th Cir. 1996) (“harm” to a protected species under the ESA)  Text

United States v. Cook, 81 F.3d 170 (9th Cir. 1996) (sufficient evidence to find a violation of U.S. smuggling and conservation statutes through the importation and selling of a protected species)

Gabor v. Frazer, 78 F.3d 593 (9th Cir. 1996) (private action under the Animal Enterprise Protection Act)

Greater Yellowstone Coal. v. Babbitt, 952 F.Supp. 1435 (D. Mont. 1996) (standing to enjoin the removal of animals under the National Park Service Organic Act, Yellowstone Organic Act and National Environmental Policy Act)  Text

United States v. Lundquist, 932 F.Supp. 1237 (D. Or. 1996) (Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act interpreted against the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, privacy rights and the Commerce Clause)  Text

Hershey v. California State Humane Soc’y, 87 F.3d 1319, 1996 WL 329549 (9th Cir. 1996) (warrantless search and seizure of animals under the Fourth Amendment and the qualified immunity doctrine)

Van Scoy v. Shell Oil Co., 98 F.3d 1348, 1996 WL 563449 (9th Cir. 1996) (standing to enjoin an oil company’s selenium discharges under the Endangered Species Act)

Dioxin/Organochlorine Ctr. v. Clarke, 57 F.3d 1517 (9th Cir. 1995) (under Clean Water Act, EPA must sufficiently consider effect of pollutants on aquatic life and wildlife)  Text

Friends of the Wild Swan, Inc. v. U.S. Forest Serv., 910 F.Supp. 1500 (D. Or. 1995) (standing to challenge agency’s response to threat to species under the National Forest Management Act and NEPA)  Text

United States v. Jim, 888 F.Supp. 1058 (D. Or. 1995) (interpreting the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act and the ESA against the Religious Freedom Restoration Act)  Text


Hatlee v. Olds, No. 16-1065 (10th Cir. Dec. 6, 2016). (Veterinarian did not act under the color of the state when he urged the sheriff to seize horses) Text

Big Cats of Serenity Springs, Inc. v. Rhodes, 843 F.3d 853 (10th Cir. 2016). (USDA agents did not act under the color of state while conducting a search and seizure under the AWA) Text

Campbell v. City of Spencer, 777 F.3d 1073 (10th Cir. 2014) (takings suit when horses were removed for animal cruelty)  Text

Dias v. City & County of Denver, 567 F.3d 1169 (10th Cir. 2009) (due process challenge to ordinance banning pit bulls)  Text

U.S. v. Binks, 23 F.App’x 912 (10th Cir. 2001) (sufficient evidence to prove the shooting of a wild horse in violation of the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act)

Lamb v. Thompson, 265 F.3d 1038 (10th Cir. 2001 (Forest Service’s procedures under the National Forest Management Act Raptor for approving timber sales affecting wildlife habitat)  Text

Sierra Club-Black Hills Group v. U.S. Forest Serv., 259 F.3d 1281 (10th Cir. 2001) (Norbeck Organic Act’s provisions for wildlife) Text

Wyoming Farm Bureau Fed’n v. Babbitt, 199 F.3d 1224 (10th Cir. 2000) (experimental reintroduction of wolves under the ESA and NEPA) Text

Colorado Envtl Coal. v. Dombeck, 185 F.3d 1162 (10th Cir. 1999) (requirement under the National Forest Management Act to manage wild lynx habitat) Text

Clark v. City of Draper, 168 F.3d 1185 (10th Cir. 1999) (private zoo owner’s property interests as subject to state animal control laws; due process laws controlling search, seizure and destruction of private zoo animals) Text

New Mexico Cattle Growers v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., No. Civ. 98-367M/JHG, 1999 WL 34797509 (D. N.M. Oct. 28, 1999) (wolf reintroduction program under the ESA and NEPA)

Southwest Center for Biological Diversity v. Clark, 90 F.Supp.2d 1300 (D. N.M. 1999) (standing to force U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to designate critical habitat for a species under ESA)  Text

Coalition for Sustainable Res., Inc. v. U.S. Forest Serv., 48 F.Supp.2d 1303 (D. Wyo. 1999) (standing and ripeness to challenge U.S. Forest Service plan as violative of ESA) Text

United States v. Moon Lake Elec. Ass’n, Inc., 45 F.Supp. 2d 1070 (D. Colo. 1999) (scope of the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act and Migratory Bird Treaty Act) Text

Wyoming Farm Bureau Fed’n v. Babbitt, 987 F.Supp. 1349 (D. Wyo. 1997) (standing to sue over U.S. government-led wolf reintroduction under ESA and NEPA) Text

United States v. Gonzales, 957 F.Supp. 1225 (D. N.M. 1997) (government’s failure to use least restrictive method of conserving bald eagles violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act) Text

Sportsmen’s Wildlife Def. Fund v. U.S. Dep’t of the Interior, 949 F.Supp. 1510 (D. Colo. 1996) (standing to enjoin construction on state wildlife and park land under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, Land and Water Conservation Fund Act and NEPA) Text

Crow Tribe of Indians v. Repsis, 73 F.3d 982 (10th Cir. 1995) (Native American treaty-based hunting rights on public lands) Text

United States v. Hill, 896 F.Supp. 1057 (D. Colo. 1995) (ESA, Lacey Act and Migratory Bird Treaty Act do not unconstitutionally deprive someone who owns parts of protected species of such parts) Text


People for The Ethical Treat. Of Animals v. Miami Sea., 189 F. Supp. 3d 1327 (S.D. Fla. 2016). (Condition of captive endangered species does not rise to the level of takings under the ESA). Text

Animal Legal Defense Fund v. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 789 F.3d 1206 (11th Cir. 2015) (challenge to USDA decision to renew an noncompliant exhibitors license) Text

Whitehead Street, INC. v. Sec., Dept. Of Agri., 701 F.3d 1345 (11th Cir. 2012). (Court found museum to be engaged in distribution of animals under the AWA.) Text

Bloom v. Alvereze, 498 Fed. Appx. 867, 498 F. App’x 867 (2012). (County officer had probable cause to arrest rancher and seize cattle for animal welfare issues.) Text

Kollman Ramos v. U.S. Dep’t of Agric., No. 08-10236, 2009 WL 922661 (11th Cir. Apr. 7, 2009) (violations of AWA; operating without a dealer license)

Reams v. Irvin, 561 F.3d 1258 (11th Cir. 2009) (no violation of due process rights in impoundment of horses)  Text

Gibson v. Babbitt, 223 F.3d 1256 (11th Cir. 2000) (interpreting the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act against the Religious Freedom Restoration Act)  Text

Gibson v. Babbitt, 72 F.Supp.2d 1356 (S.D. Fla. 1999) (interpreting the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act against the Religious Freedom Restoration Act) Text

U.S. v. Grigsby, 111 F.3d 806 (11th Cir. 1997) (Migratory Bird Treaty Act; African Elephant Conservation Act; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Text

McGrail and Rowley, Inc. v. Babbitt, 986 F.Supp. 1386 (S.D. Fla. 1997) (proper procedure for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to deny a permit application under the National Wildlife Refuge Administration Act) Text

United States v. Fisher, 977 F.Supp. 1193 (S.D. Fla. 1997) (seagrass as a “resource” under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act) Text

United States v. Bernal, 90 F.3d 465 (11th Cir.1996) (Lacey Act applies to animal bred in captivity; Downward departure sentences for violations of Lacey Act and ESA) Text

Wilderness Soc’y v. Alcock, 83 F.3d 386 (11th Cir. 1996) (ripeness of suit alleging agency violation of National Forest Management Act) Text

United States v. Guthrie, 50 F.3d 936 (11th Cir. 1995) (constitutionality of Lacey Act; scope of review for a collateral challenge to an agency regulation; scope of ESA)


People for The Ethical Treat. Of Animals v. US Wildlife In Need and Wildlife In Deed, Inc., 476 F.Supp. 3d 765 (S.D. Ind. 2020). (zoo permanently enjoined from declawing Big Cats absent medical necessity) Text

American Anti-Vivisection Soc. V. US Dept. of Agriculture, 946 F.3d 615 (D.C. Cir. 2020). (USDA failed to fulfill statutory requirement to issue avian animal welfare standards) Text

Kathrens v. Zinke, 323 F. Supp. 3d 1142

People for The Ethical Treat. Of Animals v. US Dept. of Agriculture, 797 F.3d 1087 (D.C. Cir. 2015). (USDA’s failure to enact avian specific animal welfare standards did not violate the APA.) Text

Daskalea v. Washington Humane Soc’y, 275 F.R.D. 346 (D.D.C. 2011) (constitutional challenge to D.C.’s Freedom Cruelty to Animal Protection Act) Text

Showing Animals Respect and Kindness v. U.S. Dep’t of Interior, 730 F. Supp. 2d 180 (D.D.C. 2010) (prosecution of man who shot tame bear for recreational purposes)  Text

In Defense of Animals v. Salazar, 713 F. Supp. 2d 20 (D.D.C. 2010) (challenge under NEPA and the Wild Horse Act)  Text

American Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals v. Feld, 677 F.Supp.2d 55 (D.D.C. 2009) (no standing under the Endangered Species Act)  Text

Humane Soc’y of the U.S. v. U.S. Postal Serv., 609 F.Supp.2d 85 (D.D.C. 2009) (ability to challenge rejection of petition to make animal fighting periodical material unmailable under AWA)  Text

In Defense of Animals v. United States Department of Agriculture, 587 F.Supp.2d 178 (D.D.C. 2008) (exclusion of expert testimony, violations of Animal Welfare Act)  Text

Daskalea v. Washington Humane Soc’y, 577 F.Supp.2d 90 (D.D.C. 2008) (motion asserting immunity from plaintiff’s claimed violation of due process in seizure of pets)  Text

Daskalea v. Washington Humane Soc’y, 480 F.Supp.2d 16 (D.D.C. 2007) (constitutionality of state animal cruelty act) Text

Feld Entm’t, Inc. v. A.S.P.C.A., 523 F.Supp.2d 1 (D.D.C. 2007) (RICO action against animal rights organization) Text

Fund for Animals, Inc. v. Kempthorne, 472 F.3d 872 (D.C. Cir. 2006) (standing for residents in case involving mute swans) Text

Doris Day Animal League v. Veneman, 315 F.3d 297 (D.C. Cir. 2003) (action challenging validity of regulation exempting breeders who sell dogs from their residences from licensure under Animal Welfare Act) Text

In Defense of Animals v. HHS, No. Civ.99-3024 (TFH), 2001 WL 34871354 (D.D.C. Sept. 28, 2001) (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees under the Animal Welfare Act)

San Juan Audubon Soc’y v. Veneman, 153 F.Supp.2d 1 (D.D.C. 2001) (using sodium cyanide capsules under ESA) Text

Alternatives Research & Dev. Found. v. Veneman, 262 F.3d 406 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (definition of “animal” as per the Animal Welfare Act) Text

Alternatives Research & Dev. Found. v. Veneman, 101 F.Supp.2d 7 (D.D.C. 2000) (definition of “animal” as per the Animal Welfare Act; standing to sue under the Animal Welfare Act) Text

Humane Soc’y of the U.S. v. Glickman, 217 F.3d 882 (D.C. Cir. 2000) (Migratory Bird Treaty Act applies to federal agencies) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Glickman, 204 F.3d 229 (D.C. Cir. 2000) (standing to challenge USDA regulation under the Animal Welfare Act) Text

Davis v. Latschar, 202 F.3d 359 (D.C. Cir. 2000) (judicial review of agency deer culling programs under National Park Service Organic Act, NEPA, and National Historic Preservation Act) Text

Davis v. Latschar, 83 F.Supp.2d 1 (D.D.C. 1999) (judicial review of agency deer culling programs under National Park Service Organic Act, NEPA, and National Historic Preservation Act) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Glickman, 154 F.3d 426 (D.C. Cir. 1998) (standing to challenge USDA regulations under the Animal Welfare Act) Text

Marine Mammal Conservancy, Inc. v. USDA, 134 F.3d 409 (D.C. Cir. 1998) (filing a motion to intervene in USDA proceeding for Animal Welfare Act charges; appeals process for review of a denied motion) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund, Inc. v. Glickman, 154 F.3d 426 (D.C. Cir. 1998) (challenging USDA’s regulations concerning treatment of primates) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Glickman, 130 F.3d 464 (D.C. Cir. 1997) (standing to challenge USDA regulations under the Animal Welfare Act) Text

Defenders of Wildlife v. Babbitt, 958 F.Supp. 670 (D.D.C. 1997) (proper procedure for listing species as threatened or endangered under the ESA) Text

National Ass’n of Homebuilders v. Babbitt, 130 F.3d 1041 (D.C. Cir. 1997) (constitutionality of the ESA provision regarding the “taking” of species) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund, Inc. v. Shalala, 104 F.3d 424 (D.C. Cir. 1997) (National Academy of Sciences committee as part of Federal Advisory Committee Act may have to divulge some records) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Glickman, 943 F.Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1996) (standing to challenge USDA regulations for public primate exhibits under the Animal Welfare Act) Text

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals v. Barshefsky, 925 F.Supp. 844 (D.D.C. 1996) (standing to enjoin US Trade Representative from involvement in or support of expert meeting developing international standards for humane animal trapping) Text

Animal Legal Def. Fund v. Shalala, 53 F.3d 363 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (obtaining preliminary injunction against National Academy of Sciences to access committee meetings) Text

Humane Soc’y of the U.S. v. Babbitt, 46 F.3d 93 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (standing under ESA to challenge Department of Interior exemption of interstate transport granted to Asian elephant exhibitor) Text

Fund for Animals v. Babbitt, 903 F.Supp. 96 (D.D.C. 1995) (adequacy of Fish and Wildlife Service’s grizzly bear recovery plan under the ESA) Text

Daul v. Meckus, 897 F.Supp. 606 (D.D.C. 1995) (due process defenses to Animal Welfare Act charge) Text


Humane Soc’y of the U.S v. Clinton, 236 F.3d 1320 (Fed. Cir. 2001) (High Seas Driftnet Fisheries Enforcement Act) Text

Reservation Ranch v. United States, 217 F.3d 850 (Fed. Cir. 1999) (contract provisions under the National Forest Management Act)

Earth Island Inst. v. Albright, 147 F.3d 1352 (Fed. Cir. 1998) (jurisdiction over a challenge to federal agency’s implementation of ESA regulations) Text


LaRue v. Alabama, 478 So.2d 13 (Ala.Crim.App.1985) (admissibility and sufficiency of evidence) Text


Mahan v. Alaska, 51 P.3d 962 (Alaska 2002) (restitution in animal cruelty action) Text


Smith v. Pima County Animal Control, No. 2 CA-CV 2008-0119, 2009 WL  1708839 (Ariz. Ct. App. June 17, 2009) (forfeiture of dogs to county)

Campbell v. Super. Ct. In and For County of Maricopa, 924 P.2d 1045 (Ariz. Ct. App, 1996) (definition of “moral turpitude”) Text


Brown v. Arkansas, 292 S.W.3d 288 (Ark. 2009) (restitution to Humane Society) Text

Van Houten v. Pritchard, 870 S.W.2d 377 (1994) (duty to control large animals) Text

Sanders v. Mincey, 879 S.W.2d 398 (1994) (sufficiency of evidence; ordinary negligence) Text


Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Mendes, 72 Cal.Rptr.3d 553 (Ct. App. 2008) (private right of action in animal cruelty statutes) Text

Humane Soc’y of U.S. v. State Bd. of Equalization, 61 Cal.Rptr.3d 277 (Ct. App. 2007) (challenge to exemptions for “battery cage” chicken coops) Text

California v. Smith, 57 Cal.Rptr.3d 926 (Ct. App. 2007) (sentencing) Text

California v. Alvarado, 23 Cal.Rptr.3d 391 (Ct. App. 2005) (animal cruelty as a general intent crime) Text

California v. Burnett, 2 Cal.Rptr.3d 120 (Ct. App. 2003) (animal’s death as the natural and probable result of defendant’s actions sufficient to support conviction) Text

California v. Wood, 127 Cal.Rptr.2d 132 (Ct. App. 2002) (testimony of animal control officer as affecting constitutional rights in cruelty case) Text

California v. Youngblood, 109 Cal. Rptr. 2d 776 (Cal. Ct. App. 2001) (construction; euthanasia; defense of necessity) Text

California v. Baniqued, 101 Cal. Rptr. 2d 835 (Cal. Ct. App. 2000) (the scope of “every dumb creature”; double jeopardy) Text

California v. Thomason, 101 Cal. Rptr. 2d 247 (Cal Ct. App. 2000) (vagueness; definition of “any animal known as dangerous to life, limb, or property”)

Broden v. Marin Humane Soc’y, 83 Cal. Rptr. 2d 235 (Cal. Ct. App. 1999) (warrantless seizure; owner’s relationship to seized animals) Text

California v. Speegle, 62 Cal. Rptr. 2d 384 (Cal Ct. App. 1997) (vagueness; classification; animal neglect; removed animals; jury instructions) Text


Colorado ex rel. J.M.N., 39 P.3d 1261 (Colo. App. 2001) (evidence of torture) Text


State v. Hearl, 190 A.3d 42, 182 Conn. App. 237 (App. Ct. 2018). (Abuse to an individual animal does not violate double jeopardy statute) Text

Connecticut ex rel. Gregan v. Koczur, 947 A.2d 282, 287 Conn. 145 (2008) (whether state neglect statute is unconstitutionally vague) Text

Connecticut v. Doriss, 854 A.2d 48, 84 Conn.App. 542 (2004) (restitution in animal cruelty action) Text


State v. Yoder, Cr. A. Nos. 1003003247 K10-03-0935, 2010 WL 2346221 (Del. C.P. May 14, 2010) (request for a no contact order against SPCA)

Delaware v. Hamblin, No. 0510021162, S05-10-2242, 2006 WL 951323 (Del. Ct. Com. Pl. April 6, 2006) (“possession” of dog for purposes of criminal possession of animal)


American Anti-Vivisection Society v. United States Department of Agriculture, 946 F.3d 615 (D.C. 2020) (USDA failed to take “discrete action” issuing standards to protect birds required by the AWA)  Text

Animal Legal Defense Fund, Inc., et al v. Perdue, 872 F.3d 602 (D.C. 2017) (USDA’s discretion in licensing under the AWA) Text

Shepherd v. United States, 905 A.2d 260 (D.C. 2006) (animal cruelty) Text

Stroman v. United States, 905 A.2d 194 (D.C. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to show “custody” of animals)

Silver v. United States, 726 A.2d 191 (D.C. 1999) (conviction does not merge with animal fighting conviction) Text


State v. Garcia, 252 So. 3d 783 (Fla Dist. Ct. App. 2018) (suppression of evidence issue) Text

Rodriguez v. State, 29 So.3d 357 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2010) (animal fighting charges dismissed) Text

Reynolds v. Florida, 842 So.2d 46 (Fla. 2002) (cruelty to animals is general intent crime) Text

Bartlett v. Florida, 929 So.2d 1125 (Fla. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Reynolds v. Florida, 784 So. 2d 509 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2001) (general intent crimes) Text

Aaroe v. Florida, 788 So. 2d 340 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2001) (sufficiency of evidence) Text


Fulton County v. S. Hope Humane Soc’y, 691 S.E.2d 393 (Ga. Ct. App. 2010) (animal control provider sued for not remitting fees to county) Text

In re C.B., 173 S.E.2d 124 (Ga. 2009) (constitutionality of animal welfare statute)

Cotton v. Georgia, 589 S.E.2d 610 (Ga. Ct. App. 2003) (malice and intent not required to prove cruelty) Text

Stephens v. Georgia, 545 S.E.2d 325 (Ga. Ct. App. 2001) (sufficiency of evidence) Text

Nel v. Georgia, 557 S.E.2d 44 (Ga. Ct. App. 2001) (self-defense as question for the jury) Text

Fort v. Georgia, 558 S.E.2d 1 (Ga. 2001) (sufficiency of evidence) Text

Sirmans v. Georgia, 534 S.E.2d 862 (Ga. Ct. App. 2000) (requirements for indictment) Text

Chaney v. Georgia, 500 S.E.2d 416 (Ga. Ct. App. 1998) (sufficiency of evidence) Text

Tiller v. Georgia, 461 S.E.2d 572 (Ga. Ct. App. 1995) (cruelty to animals; sufficiency of evidence; jury instructions) Text

Cox v. Georgia, 453 S.E.2d 471 (Ga. Ct. App. 1995) (cruelty to animals in the second degree; diminished mental capacity; sufficiency of evidence) Text


Kahaikupuna v. Hawai’i, 124 P.3d 975 (Haw. 2005) (declaratory relief not appropriate method to challenge animal cruelty laws) Text


Elliott v. Murdock, 385 P.3d 459, 161 Idaho 281 (2016). (Critique of an animal welfare activists on radio does not constitute defamation) Text


People v. Zamora, 2020 IL App (1st) 172011 (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Moore v. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Inc., 932 N.E.2d 448 (Ill. App. Ct. 2010) (defamation suit on dog training methods) Text

Illinois v. Larson, 885 N.E.2d 363 (Ill. App. Ct. 2008) (whether state aggravated cruelty statute is unconstitutionally vague, sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Illinois v. Thornton, 676 N.E.2d 1024 (Ill. App. Ct. 1997) (sentencing; warrantless entry; liability for costs of care; animal as victim) Text


People for Ethical Treatment of Animals, Inc. v. Wildlife in Need & Wildlife in Deed, Inc., No. 417CV00186RLYDML, WL 4448481 (Ind. Ct. App. 2020) (ESA takings for declawing Big Cats and separating cubs from mothers prematurely) Text

Price v. Indiana, 911 N.E.2d 716 (Ind. Ct. App. 2009) (constitutionality of animal cruelty law) Text

Tooley v. Indiana, 911 N.E.2d 721 (Ind. Ct. App. 2009) (constitutionality of animal cruelty law) Text

Davis v. Indiana, 907 N.E.2d 1043 (Ind. Ct. App. 2009) (conviction for animal fighting) Text

Baxter v. Indiana, 891 N.E.2d 110 (Ind. Ct. App. 2008) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Williams v. Indiana, 861 N.E.2d 714 (Ind. Ct. App. 2007) (sentencing) Text

Trimble v. Indiana, 848 N.E.2d 278 (Ind. Ct. App. 2007) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Hedger v. Indiana, 824 N.E.2d 417 (Ind. Ct. App. 2005) (sentencing) Text

Hall v. Indiana, 791 N.E.2d 257 (Ind. Ct. App. 2003) (variation between information charging the crime and evidence at trial) Text

Elisea v. Indiana, 777 N.E.2d 46 (Ind. Ct. App. 2002) (ear cropping as cruelty) Text

Lykins v. Indiana, 726 N.E.2d 1265 (Ind. Ct. App. 2000) (liability for seized animals; the information; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Fuller v. Indiana, 674 N.E.2d 576 (Ind. Ct. App. 1996) (double jeopardy; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Boushehry v. Indiana, 648 N.E.2d 1174 (Ind. Ct. App. 1995) (shooting geese; acting with intent to relieve an animal’s suffering) Text


Latiker v. City of Council Bluffs, 720 N.W.2d 191 (Iowa Ct. App. 2006) (preemption of city animal cruelty ordinance, double jeopardy)

Iowa v. Rudolph, No. 03-0062, 2003 WL 22900464 (Iowa Ct. App. Dec. 10, 2003) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Iowa v. Pontious, No. 00-1693, 2002 WL 31882852 (Iowa Ct. App. Dec. 30, 2002) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Iowa v. Wells, 629 N.W.2d 346 (Iowa 2001) (allowable number of counts; evidence) Text

City of Dubuque v. Fancher, 590 N.W.2d 493 (Iowa 1999) (animal abuse and neglect; disposition of animal) Text

Johnson County v. Kriz, 582 N.W.2d 759 (Iowa 1998) (legislative intent; disposition of animal)Text

Iowa v. Shaffer, 533 N.W.2d 530 (Iowa 1995) (construction and application) Text


State v. Walder, 33 So.3d 892 (La. 2010) (restitution of expenses for caring for horses) Text

Louisiana v. Schneider, 2007-943 (La. App. 3 Cir. 4/2/08); 981 So.2d 107 (constitutionality of dogfighting statute) Text

Savage v. Prator, 2004-2904 (La. 1/19/06); 921 So.2d 51 (cockfighting ordinance) Text

Louisiana v. Collins, 33,750 (La.App. 2 Cir. 9/27/00); 768 So.2d 674 (animal torture; circumstantial evidence; sentencing) Text

Louisiana v. Muneer, 98-663 (La.App. 5 Cir. 1/13/99); 733 So.2d 26 (circumstantial evidence) Text


Maine v. Black, 763 A.2d 109 (Me. 2000) (circumstantial evidence) Text


Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Pena, No. 08-P-133, 2009 WL 1635311 (Mass. App. Ct. June 12, 2009) (review of conviction for animal cruelty)

Massachusetts v. Erickson, 905 N.E.2d 127 (Mass. App. Ct. 2009) (warrantless search ok; evidence enough to show intent)


Humane Society of the United States v. National Institutes of Health, (D. Md. 2022) (CHIMP Act)

Rohrer v. Humane Society, 163 A.3d 146, 454 Md. 1 (2017).


Mills v. Rodabaugh, Nos. 08-14291, 09-10921, 2009 WL 5171846 (E.D. Mich. Dec. 22, 2009) (challenging seizure of animals and arrest) Text

Michigan v. Zirkle, No. 283853, 2009 WL 3049790 (Mich. Ct. App. Sept. 24, 2009) (self-defense in shooting a dog) Text

Michigan v. Henry, No. 282663, 2009 WL 1314823 (Mich. Ct. App. May 7, 2009) (reversing requirement to pay restitution for care and house of animals seized)

Michigan v. Henderson, 765 N.W.2d 619 (Mich. Ct. App. 2009) (ownership enough to be held responsible for torture of horses) Text

Michigan v. Fennell, 677 N.W.2d 66 (Mich Ct. App. 2004) (killing or torturing an animal is a general intent crime) Text

Michigan v. Beam, 624 N.W.2d 764 (Mich. Ct. App. 2000) (vagueness) Text

Michigan v. Bugaiski, 568 N.W.2d 391 (Mich. Ct. App. 1997) (sufficient evidence for dismissal) Text


In re McDuffee, No. A07-1053, 2008 WL 2492323 (Minn. Ct. App. June 24, 2008) (permit for dog breeding facility)

Minnesota v. Swedin, No. A05-1153, 2006 WL 224325 (Minn. Ct. App. Jan. 31, 2006) (sentencing) Text

Minnesota Council of Dog Clubs v. City of Minneapolis, 540 N.W.2d 903 (Minn. Ct. App. 1995) (statutory construction; due process) Text


Hill v. Mississippi, 853 So.2d 100 (Miss. 2003) (constitutionality under Due Process Clause and for vagueness) Text

Davis v. Mississippi, 806 So.2d 1098 (Miss. 2001) (failing to define the necessary mens rea) Text


In re 8 Horses, 22 Dogs, 297 S.W.3d 125 (Mo. Ct. App. 2009) (awarding custody of animals to Humane Society) Text

Missouri v. Fackrell, 277 S.W.3d 859 (Mo. Ct. App. 2009) (sufficient evidence to support conviction) Text

Missouri ex rel. Zobel v. Burrell, 167 S.W.3d 688 (Mo. 2005) (constitutionality for vagueness) Text

Missouri v. Blom, 45 S.W.3d 519 (Mo. Ct. App. 2001) (sufficiency of evidence) Text

United Gamefowl Breeders Ass’n of Missouri v. Nixon, 19 S.W.3d 137 (Mo. 2000) (the one-subject rule’s application to animal fighting statute) Text

Missouri v. Roberts, 8 S.W.3d 124 (Mo. Ct. App. 1999) (the term “mutilation”; sufficient evidence of both torture and mutilation) Text

Missouri v. Hill, 996 S.W.2d 544 (Mo. Ct. App. 1999) (statutory construction; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Missouri v. Choate, 976 S.W.2d 45 (Mo. Ct. App. 1998) (liability for animal injuring a human; the information; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Missouri v. Larson, 941 S.W.2d 847 (Mo. Ct. App. 1997) (the information’s contents and wording) Text

Missouri v. Stout, 958 S.W.2d 32 (Mo. Ct. App. 1997) (lack of statutory definition; the definition of “mutilation”; sufficiency of evidence; standard of review) Text

Missouri v. Roberts, 957 S.W.2d 449 (Mo. Ct. App. 1997) (search incident to arrest) Text

Boshers v. Humane Soc’y of Missouri, Inc., 929 S.W.2d 250 (Mo. Ct. App. 1996) (impounded animals) Text


Montana v. Stone, 2004 MT 151, 321 Mont. 489, 92 P3d 1178 (sentencing) Text


State of New Hampshire v. Butler, 293 A.3d 191 (N.H. 2022) (convicted of criminal negligence after leaving dog inside a parked vehicle)

New Hampshire v. Anthony, 861 A.2d 773 (N.H. 2004) (crime of accomplice to negligent cruelty to animals exists in N.H.)


Menth v. Heartland Ostrich Farm, No. L-480-09, 2011 WL 780884 (N.J. Super. Ct. March 8, 2011) (retaliation for disclosure of poor living conditions at ostrich farm)

Atlantic County Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals v. City of Absecon, No. L-16946-06, 2009 WL 1562967 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. June 5, 2009) (requesting city provide pet ownership records)

LaPlace v. Briere, 962 A.2d 1139 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2009) (conversion and negligence suit in the death of a horse) Text

N.J. Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals v. N.J. Dep’t of Agric., 955 A.2d 886 (N.J. 2008) (regulations for humane treatment of domestic livestock) Text

Gerofsky v. Passaic County Soc. for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 870 A.2d 704 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2005) (county prosecutor has statutory authority that includes supervising and controlling SPCA members)


Wild Horse Observers v. NM Livestock Bd., 363 P.3d 1222, 2016 N.M.C.A. 1 (Ct. App. 2015). (Wild horses are not considered livestock and therefore could not be considered estray.) Text

N.M. Gamefowl Ass’n v. New Mexico ex rel. King, 215 P.3d 67 (N.M. Ct. App. 2009) (challenging cock fighting ban) Text

RIO Grande Kennel Club v. City of Albuquerque, 190 P.3d 1131 (N.M. Ct. App. 2008) (preemption of city animal cruelty regulations) Text

New Mexico v. Clark, 3 P.3d 689 (N.M. Ct. App. 2000) (double jeopardy) Text

New Mexico v. Cleve, 980 P.2d 23 (N.M. Ct. App. 1999) (The definition of “any animal”; double jeopardy) Text


People v. Minutolo, 188 N.Y.S.3d 297 (N.Y. App. Div. 2023) (Challenge to the penalty imposed under Agriculture and Markets Law § 374(8)(c)) Text

Matter of Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc. V. Breheny, 176 N.Y.S.3d 533 (N.Y. App. Div. 2022) (animals cannot be the subject of habeas corpus relief) Text.

Alliance to End Chickens as Kaporos v. New York City Police Dept., 114 N.E.3d 1070 (N.Y. Ct. of App. Div. 2018). (Denial of a request for writ of mandamus to compel the NYPD to enforce laws related to animal cruelty to stop the ritual sacrifice of chickens.) Text

Huntingdon Life Scis., Inc. v. Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty, — N.Y.S.2d —, 2010 WL 818490 (N.Y. App. Div. 2010) (injunction to stop animal rights protestors)

New York v. Lewis, 881 N.Y.S.2d 586 (N.Y. App. Div. 2009) (no suppression of evidence)

New York v. Curcio, 874 N.Y.S.2d 723 (N.Y. Crim. Ct. 2008) (constitutionality of animal cruelty law as applied) Text

New York v. Degiorgio, 827 N.Y.S.2d 342 (N.Y. App. Div. 2007) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

New York v. Garcia, 812 N.Y.S.2d 66 (N.Y. App. Div. 2006) (goldfish is within definition of companion animals) Text

New York v. Sitors, 815 N.Y.S.2d 393 (N.Y. Co. Ct. 2006) (Fact that defendant’s horses did not die did not preclude state from bringing for failure to provide proper sustenance) Text

New York v. Nelson, 815 N.Y.S.2d 495 (N.Y. App. Div. 2006) (animal cruelty is strict liability offense)

Hand v. Stray Haven Humane Soc’y & S.P.C.A., Inc., 21 A.D.3d 626 (N.Y. App. Div. 2005) (claim for trespass against humane society) Text

New York v. Rogers, 703 N.Y.S.2d 891 (N.Y. City Ct 2000) (the terms “unjustifiable” and “unjustifiably”) Text

New York v. Knowles, 709 N.Y.S.2d 916 (N.Y. Co. Ct 2000) (the terms “extreme physical pain”, “especially depraved or sadistic manner”, “cruelty”, “aggravated cruelty”) Text

New York v. Rogers, 708 N.Y.S.2d 795 (N.Y. App. Div. 2000) (sufficient evidence for conviction) Text

New York v. Crowell, 719 N.Y.S.2d 421 (N.Y. App. Div. 2000) (admissible evidence; expert witnesses) Text

Montgomery County Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals v. Bennett-Blue, 681 N.Y.S.2d 106 (N.Y. App. Div, 1998) (res judicata; standing; custody) Text

New York v. Voelker, 658 N.Y.S.2d 180 (N.Y. Crim. Ct. 1997) (justifications; content-based speech restrictions) Text

New York v. Mink, 655 N.Y.S.2d 115 (N.Y. App. Div. 1997) (vagueness) Text


Malloy v. Cooper, 673 S.E.2d 783 (N.C. Ct. App. 2009) (constitutionality of animal cruelty statute as applied) Text

Malloy v. Cooper, 592 S.E.2d 17 (N.C. Ct. App. 2004) (constitutionality of statute for vagueness) Text

North Carolina v. Coble, 593 S.E.2d 109 (N.C. Ct. App. 2004) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Malloy v. Cooper, 565 S.E.2d 76 (N.C. 2002) (constitutionality of animal welfare statute) Text

North Carolina v. Arnold, 569 S.E.2d 648 (N.C. 2002) (affirmed all holdings in the case below) Text

North Carolina v. Arnold, 557 S.E.2d 119 (N.C. Ct. App. 2001) (elements of the crime of being a spectator; sufficient evidence) Text


In re Peterson’s Dogs, In re Peterson’s Dogs, 776 N.W.2d 52 (N.D. 2009) (relinquish ownership of dogs)

Kautzman v. McDonald, 2001 ND 20, 621 N.W.2d 871 (N.D. 2001) (private right of action) Text


Youngstown v. Traylor, 914 N.E.2d 1026 (Ohio 2009) (failure to confine vicious dog)

Ohio v. Ham, 2009-Ohio-3822, No. 16-19-01, 2009 WL 2370908 (Ohio Ct. App. Aug. 3, 2009) (sufficiency of evidence; vacating order of restitution)

Meyers v. Sparrow, 2009-Ohio-945, No. 08-CA-25, 2009 WL 533057 (Ohio Ct. App. Feb. 27, 2009) (civil protection order; unlawfully shooting neighbors dog) Text

City of Columbus v. Bishop, 2008-Ohio-6964, No. 08AP-300, 2008 WL 5423342 (Ohio Ct. App. Dec. 31, 2008) (review of conviction for cruelty to a dog) Text

Ohio v. Hoffman, 2008-Ohio-6602, No. 07AP886, 2008 WL 5235365 (Ohio Ct. App. Dec. 16, 2008) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Ohio v. Mangold, 2009-Ohio-6406, No. 2008-P-0033, 2008 WL 5147448 (Ohio Ct. App. Dec. 5, 2008) (authority of officer to act) Text

Ohio v. Ogletree, 2006-Ohio-4316, No. 2005-P-0059, 2006 WL 2390255 (Ohio Ct. App. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Ohio v. Dixon, 2006-Ohio-2114, No. H-05-021, 2006 WL 1120688 (Ohio Ct. App. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Ohio v. Davidson, 2006-Ohio-1458, No. 2005-P-0038, 2006 WL 763082 (Ohio Ct. App. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Ohio v. Hale, 2005-Ohio-7080, No. 04 MO 14, 2005 WL 3642690 (Ohio Ct. App. 2005) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Ohio v. Peters, 2002-Ohio-6094, No. 01-BA-57, 2002 WL 31501264 (Ohio Ct. App. 2002) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Ohio v. Howell, 739 N.E.2d 1219 (Ohio Ct. App. 2000) (mens rea; sufficiency of evidence; jury instruction; consecutive sentences; definition of “torture”) Text

Studer v. Seneca County Humane Soc’y, No. 13-99-59, 2000 WL 566738 (Ohio Ct. App. May 4, 2000) (humane society immunity)

Ohio v. Bybee, 731 N.E.2d 232 (Ohio Ct. App. 1999) (excessive fines; merged convictions; restitution) Text

Ohio v. York, No. 97-L-037, 1998 WL 257055 (Ohio Ct. App. May 1, 1998) (sufficiency of evidence)

Ohio v. Kilburn, No. CA96-12-130, 1998 WL 142412 (Ohio Ct. App. Mar. 30, 1998) (warrantless search)

Ohio v. Barker, 714 N.E.2d 447 (Ohio Ct. App. 1998) (sufficiency of evidence; joint business operators) Text

Ohio v. Bergen, 700 N.E.2d 345 (Ohio Ct. App. 1998) (mens rea; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Ohio v. Dresbach, 702 N.E.2d 513 (Ohio Ct. App. 1997) (statute’s meaning; sufficiency of evidence) Text

Ohio v. Sheets, 677 N.E.2d 818 (Ohio Ct. App. 1996) (search warrant; sufficiency of evidence; conditions of probation) Text


Justice by and through Mosiman v. Vercher, 518 P.3d 131, 321 Or. App. 439 (Or. Ct. App. 2022). (Animals lack capacity to sue on own behalf.) Text

State v. Crow, 429 P.3d 1053, 294 Or. App. 88 (Or. Ct. App. 2018). (Legislature intended each animal to be a separate victim for merger purposes.) Text

State v. Newcomb, 375 P.3d 434, 359 Or. 756 (Or. Ct. App. 2016). (Veterinarians warrantless withdrawal of blood from dog without owners’ consent to not constitute unconstitutional search and seizure.) Text  

State v. Fessenden, 333 P.3d 278, 355 Or. 759 (2014 Or. Ct. App. 2014). (exigent circumstances allowed an officer to enter property without a warrant and seize emaciated horse.) Text

Oregon v. Thomas, 63 P.3d 1242 (Or. Ct. App. 2003) (constitutionality of state animal cruelty law) Text

Oregon v. Marsh, 66 P.3d 541 (Or. Ct. App. 2003) (restitution in sentencing) Text

Oregon v. Dan, 20 P.3d 829 (Or. Ct. App. 2001) (admissibility of evidence of other offenses) Text

Oregon v. Branstetter, 29 P.3d 1121 (Or. 2001) (animal forfeiture proceedings and lesser-included offenses) Text

Oregon v. Hunter, 918 P.2d 104 (Or. Ct. App. 1996) (separate counts; discrepancies between complaint and trial) Text


Snead v. Soc’y for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals of Pa., 985 A.2d 909 (Pa. 2009) (SPCA not entitled to sovereign immunity) Text

Pennsylvania v. Kneller, 971 A.2d 495 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2009) (ability to kill own pet) Text

Pennsylvania v. Ingram, 926 A.2d 470 (P.A. Super. Court 2007) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Pennsylvania v. Tomey, 884 A.2d 291 (P.A. Super. Court 2005) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Pennsylvania v. Simpson, 832 A.2d 496 (P.A. Super. Court 2003) (proof required for neglect) Text

Pennsylvania v. Balog, 672 A.2d 319 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1996) (overbreadth; vagueness) Text


Bruce v. Durney, 341 S.C. 563, 534 S.E.2d 720 (S.C. Ct. App. 2000) (liability for dog bites) Text

Padgett v. Mercado, 533 S.E.2d 339 (S.C. Ct. App. 2000) (definition of “otherwise attacks”) Text

Nesbitt v. Lewis, 517 S.E.2d 11 (S.C. Ct. App. 1999) (liability for dog’s behavior; punitive damages) Text

State v. Whetstone, 510 S.E.2d 225 (S.C. Ct. App. 1998) (transferring cases from court of general sessions to magistrate’s court) Text

Elmore v. Ramos, 489 S.E.2d 663 (S.C. Ct. App. 1997) (questions for jury; strict liability; definition of “otherwise attacks”) Text

Henry v. Lewis, 489 S.E.2d 639 (S.C. Ct. App. 1997) (horses) Text


South Dakota v. Nelson, 1998 SD 124, 587 N.W.2d 439 (jury instructions and deliberations) Text


Tennessee v. Stewart, No. E2008-00969-CCA-R3-CD, 2009 WL 2365568 (Tenn. Crim. App. Aug. 3, 2009) (conviction for shooting a dog)

Tennessee v. Siliski, 238 S.W.3d 338 (Tenn. Crim. App. 2007) (a separate cruelty conviction is possible for each affected animal) Text

Tennessee v. Webb, 130 S.W.3d 799 (Tenn. Crim. App. 2003) (constitutionality of statute for vagueness) Text


Chambers v. Perry, No. 05-09-00407-CV, 2010 WL 1052909 (Tex. App. 2010) (warrant to seize animals) Text

Texas v. Almendarez, 301 S.W.3d 886 (Tex. App. 2009) (double jeopardy) Text

Bradley v. Texas, No. 01-08-00332-CR, 2009 WL 1688200 (Tex. App. June 18, 2009) (double jeopardy; termination of ownership of animals)

Texas v. Clayton, No. 06-08-00198, 2009 WL 322869 (Tex. App. Feb. 11, 2009) (granting new trial)

Washington v. Sheppard, No. 60405-8-I, 2008 WL 5128189 (Wash. Ct. App. Dec. 8, 2008) (justification in shooting dog)

Vavrecka v. Texas, No. 14-07-00687-CR, 2009 WL 179203 (Tex. App. Jan. 27, 2009) (review of conviction for cruelty to animals) Text

Volosen v. Texas, 192 S.W.3d 597 (Tex. App. 2006) (legal authority to kill dog who was attacking chickens) Text

Swift v. Texas, No. 2-05-236-CR, 2006 WL 1030174 (Tex. App. April 20, 2006) (error in court’s definition of “torture”)

Texas v. Kingsbury, 129 S.W.3d 202 (Tex. App. 2004) (distinguishing between felony animal torture and misdemeanor failing to provide necessary food, care, or shelter) Text

Mack v. Texas, No. 12-02-00037-CR, 2003 WL 23015101 (Tex. App. Dec. 3, 2003) (establishing that malnourished cow was living on defendant’s ranch)

Hoffman v. Texas, No. 03-02-00192-CR, 2002 WL 1804897 (Tex. App. Aug. 8, 2002) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction)

Martinez v. Texas, 48 S.W.3d 273 (Tx. App. 2001) (circumstantial evidence of mens rea) Text

McDonald v. Texas, 64 S.W.3d 86 (Tx. App. 2001) (evidence of unreasonable act) Text

Westfall v. Texas, 10 S.W.3d 85 (Tx. App. 1999) (sufficiency of evidence; jury instructions) Text

Granger v. Folk, 931 S.W.2d 390 (Tx. App. 1996) (due process; State’s options) Text

Pine v. Texas, 921 S.W.2d 866 (Tx. App. 1996) (forfeiture actions) Celinski v. Texas, 911 S.W.2d 177 (Tx. App. 1995) (sufficiency of evidence) Text

Pitts v. Texas, 918 S.W.2d 4 (Tx. App. 1995) (appeal of seizure order) Text


Vermont v. Eldredge, 910 A.2d 816 (Vt. 2006) (reasonableness of sentencing) Text

Hegarty v. Addison County Humane Soc’y, 848 A.2d 1139, (Vt. 2004) (search and seizure by humane society) Text

Vermont v. Gadreault, 758 A.2d 781 (Vt. 2000) (definition of “inhumane”; strict liability; defense to animal cruelty) Text

Vermont v. Kornell, 741 A.2d 290 (Vt. 1999) (continuing jurisdiction over motion to compel return of property) Text


Haefele v. Commonwealth, Record No. 0508-21-3, 2022 WL 10219886 (Va. Ct. App. Oct. 18, 2022) (No language in Code § 18.2-144 limiting statute to only acts that are against the will of the owner) Text

Sullivan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, No. 1886-08-3, 2010 WL 152062 (Va. Ct. App. Jan. 19, 2010) (failure to provide necessary emergency vet treatment to a horse)

Ryan v. Virginia, Record No. 1818-05-1, 2006 WL 2050915 (Va. Ct. App. July 25, 2006) (constitutionality of statutes for vagueness) Text


State v. Peterson, 301 P.3d 1060, 174 Wash. App. 828 (Ct. App. 2013). (vagueness of “unjustifiable physical pain did not render it invalid”). Text

State v. Rider, No. 64259-6-I, 2011 WL 768892 (Wash. Ct. App. March 7, 2011) (9 counts of animal cruelty for death of farm animals)

Washington v. Smith, 223 P.3d 1262 (Wash. Ct. App. 2009) (cruelty in death of llama) Text

Washington v. Nelson, 219 P.3d 100 (Wash. Ct. App. 2009) (conviction for animal fighting) Text

Washington v. Paulson, 128 P.3d 133 (Wash. Ct. App. 2006) (sufficiency of evidence to support conviction) Text

Washington v. Zawistowski, 82 P.3d 698 (Wash. Ct. App. 2004) (hunger is within the statutory definition of “pain”) Text

Washington v. Andree, 954 P.2d 346 (Wash. Ct. App. 1998) (elements; definition of “undue suffering”; scope; jury’s role) Text


West Virginia v. Burgess, 516 S.E.2d 491 (W. Va. 1999) (proof of malice) Text