Yardage: A daily, per-head, feedlot cost, in addition to feed costs, for maintaining cattle at the feedlot.

Yarding: The initial movement of logs from the point of felling to a central loading area or landing.

Yarn(s): A continuous strand of textile fibers that may be composed of endless filaments or shorter fibers twisted or otherwise held together. Yarns are utilized in making fabric.

YBS: Young, beginning, and small

Yearling(s): An animal that is more than one year old, but less than two. See Long yearling, and Short yearling.

Yeast: A tiny plant-like microorganism that serves as a catalyst in the process of fermentation.

Yeast(s): A tiny plant-like microorganism that serves as a catalyst in the process of fermentation. The organism is used to ferment sugars (primarily glucose) to ethanol.

Yellow corn: Corn that is yellow-kerneled and contains not more than five percent of corn of other colors. Yellow kernels of corn with a slight tinge of red are considered yellow corn. See Corn classes.

Yellow soybeans: Soybeans that have yellow or green seed coats, that in cross section are yellow or have a yellow tinge, and may include not more than 10 percent of soybeans of other colors.

Yield (economic maximum): The most that can be produced on full, efficient application of technology presently known by all producers. It assumes there are no limitations on management, materials, equipment, capital, and experience.

Yield (wool): (1) The amount of clean wool that is derived from grease wool in the scouring process; expressed as a percentage. (2) The amount of usable fiber after processing.

Yield adjustment: Under former programs for program yield purposes, the Farm Service Agency had the authority to adjust any farm program payment yield for any program crop on a farm if the yield did not accurately reflect the productive potential of the farm. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1102(e)), payment yields for use in calculating counter-cyclical payments can be upgraded. See Partial county yield average, and Program yield(s).

Yield goal (sugar): See Per-acre yield goal (sugar).

Yield grade: grade assigned by a federal grader to predict carcass cut ability. See Yield grade (beef), Yield grade (lamb), and Yield grade (pork).

Yield grade (beef): The yield grade of a beef carcass is determined by considering four characteristics: (a) amount of external fat, (b) amount of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, (c) area of the ribeye muscle, and (d) hot-carcass weight. Under U.S. standards, there are five classes of yield grade.

Yield grade (lamb): The yield grade of an ovine carcass is based on the amount of external fat present, maturity, color, firmness, and texture of the lean evaluated in terms of their relationship to the ultimate flavor and tenderness of the meat. USDA lamb grades are prime, choice, and good.

Yield grade (pork): The yield grade for barrows and gilts, with an acceptable quality grade, is determined by the expected carcass yields of four lean cuts and is graded U.S. 1 through 4. See Utility grade (pork).

Yield guarantee: For crop insurance purposes, the per-bushel figure that is a percentage of actual production history yield. Indemnity payments occur when the actual yield is below the yield guarantee.

Yield-based insurance coverage: Crop insurance that pays an indemnity for low yields; as opposed to revenue insurance that insures a level of crop income, based both on yields and the prices that determine a crop’s value. See Dollar Plan, Group Risk Plan (GRP), and Multiperil crop insurance (MPCI).

Young turkey: A turkey of either sex that is less than eight months of age.

Young, beginning, and small (YBS): Farm Credit System initiative to encourage newer and younger producers to enter farming and ranching and to provide increased credit opportunities for small farmers. The goals of this initiative are to be balanced with the requirement to minimize undue credit risks. See Beginning; beginning farmer(s) and rancher(s) (qualified), Small (farmer and rancher), and Young; young farmer(s).

Young; young farmer(s): Under the Farm Credit System’s YBS initiative, a young, beginning, and small farmer, rancher, and producer or harvester of aquatic products who is under the age of 35.

Youth project loans: Farm Service Agency loans to individual rural youths to establish and operate income-producing projects of modest size in connection with their participation in 4-H, FFA, and similar organizations. Also Rural youth loans.