U-pick: A form of direct marketing whereby the consumer comes to the farming operation for the purpose of harvesting and purchasing for cash agricultural or farm products (typically fruits and vegetables), and then transports the purchases home.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID): Created by Executive Order in 1961. An independent governmental agency that provides foreign assistance and humanitarian aid to promote the political and economic interests of the U.S.

U.S. Cotton Standards Act (7 U.S.C. §§ 51 et seq.): Signed into law March 4, 1923. The Act, as amended, authorized the USDA to maintain official cotton standards and provide classification and testing services to cotton producers, textile manufacturers, merchants, and others in the domestic and international cotton industry. The standards are used for the determination of value for commercial purposes.

U.S. Fancy; U.S. Extra Fancy: Generally, the highest quality fruit and vegetable grades, based on exterior quality including color, firmness, soundness, and freedom from blemishes.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS): See Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

U.S. Forest Service (USFS): See Forest Service (FS).

U.S. Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1988 (P. L. 100-518) (7 U.S.C. §§ 71 et seq.): Signed into law October 24, 1988. The Act amended the United States Grain Standards Act of 1916 to extend authority for grain inspection and weighing fees. See Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Grain standards, and U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1916 (USGSA).

U.S. Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1993 (P. L. 103-156) (7 U.S.C. §§ 71 et seq.): Signed into law November 24, 1993. The Act extended, through FY2000, the authorization of appropriations for the grain inspection, authorized inspection, and weighing activities in Canadian ports; and extended inspector licensing authority to contract-supervised persons. See Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Grain standards, and U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1916 (USGSA).

U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1916 (USGSA) (P.L. 64-190) (7 U.S.C. §§ 71 et seq.): Signed into law August 11, 1916, and amended in 1968, 1976, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, and 2000. The Act was Part B of the agricultural appropriations act for FY1917. The act requires official certification that export grain sold by grade has been inspected and weighed, and provides for the establishment of official U.S. grain standards that are used to measure and describe the physical and biological properties of the grain at the time of inspection. See Grain Quality Improvement Act of 1986, Grain Quality Incentives Act of 1990, Grain Standards and Warehouse Improvement Act of 2000, Grade and standards, Grain standards, U.S. Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1988, U.S. Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1993, and U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1976.

U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1976 (P. L. 94-582) (7 U.S.C. §§ 71 et seq.): Signed into law October 21, 1976. The Act established the Federal Grain Inspection Service. It authorized the USDA to establish (a) standards of kind, class, quality, and condition of specified grains; and (b) standards for accurate weighing and certification of grain shipped in interstate and foreign commerce and procedures for the supervision of the weighing of such grains. See Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS), Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Grain standards, and U.S. Grain Standards Act of 1916 (USGSA).

U.S. Grains Council (USGC): Founded in 1960. A private, nonprofit corporation with ten international offices and programs in more than 80 countries. Its membership includes producer organizations and agribusinesses with a common interest in developing export markets. The USGC develops export markets for U.S. barley, corn, grain sorghum, and related products, providing leadership, information, and innovation.

U.S. Northern Europe (USNE): For purposes of determining an adjusted world price for cotton, the taking of the Northern Europe price and adjusting the value by “backing off” transportation, quality, and other factors to determine a comparable landed price in Europe for U.S. middling 1-3/32 inch cotton. The differential between the USNE price and the average U.S. spot market price for middling 1-3/32 inch cotton is the basis for determining whether the USDA will make a Step 1 adjustment.

U.S. Number 1 grade: The federal grain and oilseed standard that represents premium quality.

U.S. Number 2 grade: The federal grain and oilseed standard that typically includes the chief trading quality. Most grain produced meets the Number 2 grade or better, and reflects the level of quality desired by the major end-users.

U.S. Number 3 grade: The federal grain and oilseed standard that signifies intermediate quality.

U.S. Number 4 grade: The federal grain and oilseed standard that signifies intermediate quality, including being materially weathered.

U.S. Poultry & Egg Association (USPoultry): Formerly known as the Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association. It is dedicated to the growth, progress, and welfare of the poultry industry and all of its individual and corporate interests. All segments of the industry are represented, from producers of eggs, turkeys, and broilers, to the processors of these products, and allied companies that serve the industry.

U.S. Retained: The carcass, carcass part, viscera, or other product that has been held for further examination by a Food Safety and Inspection Service inspector to determine if it should be passed or condemned.

U.S. Rice Producers’ Group: See USA Rice Federation.

U.S. Suspect: A live animal that is suspected of having a disease or other condition that may require its condemnation, in whole or in part, and is subject to further examination by a Food Safety and Inspection Service inspector to determine its disposal.

U.S. Trade Representative (USTR): Pursuant to the signing of the Trade Act of 1974, the cabinet-level head (with the rank of Ambassador) of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative; the principal trade policy agency of the U.S Government. The USTR is the nation’s chief trade negotiator and representative in the major international trade organizations. Traditionally, USTR applies to both the agency and the agency head.

U.S. Warehouse Act of 1916 (USWA) (7 U.S.C. §§ 241 et. seq.): Signed into law August 11, 1916, and amended by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 and the Grain Standards and Warehouse Improvement Act of 2000. The act was Part C of the agricultural appropriations act forFY1917. The act authorized the USDA to license warehouses engaged in the business of storing agricultural products. The USDA was also authorized to license persons to weigh, inspect, sample, or classify agricultural products stored, or to bestored, in licensed warehouses. The Act covers warehouses that store cotton and cottonseed, grain (including oilseeds), tobacco, wool, soybeans, dry beans, syrup, and nuts. The USWA is considered a permissive regulatory act because the regulations only apply to those who voluntarily participate.

U.S. Warehouse Act of 2000: See Grain Standards and Warehouse Improvement Act of 2000.

U.S. Wheat Associates (USW): The export market development organization representing U.S. wheat producers. Its resources are devoted exclusively to export market development, through demonstrating the unique role of the U.S. as a reliable producer and supplier of a wide range of quality wheats, and by encouraging the growth of world consumption of wheat and wheat products through technical assistance and service. USW does not buy, sell, or process wheat.

UA: Urban agriculture

UBMTA: Uniform Biological Material Transfer Agreement

Udder: The encased mammary glands and nipples of a cow, ewe, mare, or sow. Also Bag.

UDIA: United Dairy Industry Association

UEA: United Egg Association

UEP: United Egg Producers

UF: Ultra-filtration

UGRSA: Uniform Grain and Rice Storage Agreement

UHT: Ultra-high temperature

Ultimate net loss(es): The amount paid by a reinsured company, under any reinsured eligible crop insurance contract, in settlement of any claim or in satisfaction of any judgment or arbitration award less any recovery or salvage by the reinsured company. Ultimate net loss may include interest and the policyholder’s court costs related to the eligible crop insurance contract provisions or procedures that are contained in a final court judgment against the reinsured company.

Ultimate recipient: See Intermediary Relending Program (IRP).

Ultra-filtered milk: The liquid form of milk protein concentrate.

Ultra-filtration; ultrafiltration (UF): Uses semipermeable membranes to separate components based on their molecular weight. The portion of the processing stream that is retained by the membrane and contains the larger components is referred to as the retentate stream, while the components that are smaller and cross the membrane are known as the permeate portion.

Ultra-high temperature (UHT): The pasteurization process where milk is heated from 280° to 302° F for one to two seconds. Typically, UHT milk is packaged in aseptic containers so as not to require refrigeration.

Ultrapasteurized; ultrapasteurization: Ultra-high temperature (UHT) pasteurized milk or milk pasteurized nearly at the UHT level but that is not aseptically packaged. It is often used in single-serving coffee creamers and some beverage milk for food service. See Pasteurization; pasteurizing; pasteurized.

Ultrasonic (ultrasound) measurements: The use of ultrasound to estimate carcass and reproductive characteristics. It operates off the principle that sound waves echo differently off different densities of tissue.

Unallocated surplus (earnings): An earnings surplus that has not been allocated to members by the cooperative.

Unauthorized appropriation(s): New budget authority in an appropriations measure for an agency or program whose authorization has expired or was never authorized, or whose budget authority exceeds the authorized limit.

Unavoidable residual environmental contamination (UREC): Background levels of naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals that are present in the soil or present in organically produced agricultural products that are below established tolerances.

Unclassed wheat: Any variety of wheat that is not classifiable under criteria provided in the wheat standards. This class includes any wheat that is other than red or white in color.

Uncommitted inventories: Stocks owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation at any given time that have not been sold, donated, or in any way committed for use.

Under loan: See Nonrecourse loan(s).

Undergrade(s): Edible shell eggs that do not meet the standards for Grade AA, Grade A, Grade B, or Checks.

Underlying commodity: (1) The commodity or futures contract on which a commodity option is based, and that must be accepted or delivered if the option is exercised. (2) The cash commodity underlying a futures contract.

Underlying futures contract: In commodity options and futures trading, the specific futures contract that is bought or sold by exercising an option.

Undermarketing(s): Under the tobacco and former peanut programs, producers who experienced production shortfalls in one crop year due to poor weather were allowed to carry forward the unused quota to a future year, thus allowing the producer to market some portion of a future year’s crop as quota additions (tobacco) or quota peanuts. For peanuts, these undermarketings were not accounted for in the establishment of farm poundage quotas. This practice was eliminated by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. For burley tobacco, the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 limited such carry forward to ten percent of the national basic quota, but the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003, suspended this limitation for FY2003.

Underplanting (50/85 and 0/85) provision; underplant: A provision of the Food Security Act of 1985 and the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, under which rice or upland cotton producers planting between 50 and 92(85) percent of their base acreage (or between 0 and 92(85) percent for wheat and feed grains) to the program commodity, and devoting the remaining base acres to a conserving use were eligible to receive deficiency payments on 92(85) percent of the base acreage. The underplanting provisions were eliminated by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. See 0/85, 0/92, 50/85, and 50/92.

Understory: (1) The foliage layer beneath the forest canopy. (2) Young trees that are growing beneath the tall mature timber in a stand.

Understory release: Complete removal or deadening of older trees having no merchantable value because of species, size, or condition to improve growing conditions for desired understory species.

Underwriting gain: Under the Federal Crop Insurance program, the amount that a reinsured company’s share of retained net book premium exceeds its retained ultimate net losses.

Underwriting loss: Under the Federal Crop Insurance program, the amount that a reinsured company’s share of retained ultimate net losses exceeds its retained net book premium.

Undesirable microorganisms: Those microorganisms that are of public health significance, subject food to decomposition, indicate that food is contaminated with filth, or otherwise may cause food to be adulterated.

Undesirable plants: Species classified as undesirable, noxious, harmful, exotic, injurious, or poisonous under state or federal law, but not including species listed as endangered by the Endangered Species Act, or species indigenous to the area where control measures are to be taken.

Uneven-aged: A forest, crop, or stand composed of intermingling trees that differ markedly in age. By convention, a minimum range of 10 to 20 years is generally accepted; with rotations of 100 years, 30 percent of the rotation may be the minimum.

Unfair (foreign) trade practices: Actions by a government or firm that result in unfair competitive advantages in international trade. Such actions include export subsidies, dumping, boycotts, or discriminatory shipping arrangements. Under Section 301, the President is required to take appropriate action, including retaliation, to obtain removal of policies or actions by a foreign government that violate an international agreement, or are unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory, and that burden or restrict U.S. commerce. See Section 301.

Unified budget: Receipts from all sources and outlays for all programs of the federal government. It is the most comprehensive measure of the government’s finances.

Unified National Strategy for Animal Feeding Operations: The combined USDA and Environmental Protection Agency national strategy to address the effects of animal feeding operations on water quality and public health. Often referred to as the AFO/CAFO Strategy and released on March 9, 1999, it increases enforcement of regulatory requirements affecting animal feeding operations and regulation of land application of manure as a point source of pollution, expands data collection, and encourages owners and operators to develop and implement comprehensive nutrient management plans to minimize water pollution from confinement facilities and land application of manure.

Uniform Biological Material Transfer Agreement (UBMTA): See Material Transfer Agreement (MTA).

Uniform Cotton Classing Fees Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-108): Signed into law August 20, 1987. The law provided continuing authority to the USDA to recover costs associated with cotton classing services. See Cotton classing; cotton classification.

Uniform Grain and Rice Storage Agreement (UGRSA): Commodity Credit Corporation agreement through which it makes storage payments to commercial warehouse operators storing grain, rice, and minor oilseeds for the CCC in country and terminal elevators (U.S. interest grain). The CCC hascontracts with 2,845 commercial warehouse operators in 42 states.

Uniform price(s): See Blend price.

Uniformity: See Length uniformity.

Unilateral agricultural sanction: Under the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000, the term means any prohibition, restriction, or condition on carrying out an agricultural program with respect to a foreign country or foreign entity that is imposed by the United States for reasons of foreign policy or national security, except in a case in which the United States imposes the measure pursuant to (a) a multilateral regime, and the other member countries of that regime have agreed to impose substantially equivalent measures; or a mandatory decision of the United Nations Security Council.

Uninsured crops: Crops for which crop insurance was available but not taken.

Unique crops: Very-low-volume crops such as bottle gourds, jicama, luffa gourds, okra, and prickly pear cactus.

Unique; unique farmland: Land, other than prime farmland, that is used for production of specific high-value products, as determined by the USDA. The land has special combinations of soil quality, location, growing season, and moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained high quality and high yields of specific crops, when treated and managed according to acceptable farming practices. Examples of such crops include citrus, tree nuts, olives, cranberries, fruits, and vegetables.

Unit: The insurable acreage used to determine the actual production history yield, the production guarantee, and any indemnity (loss payment).

Unit cost: The average cost to produce a single item. It is the total cost divided by the number of items produced.

Unit train: Typically, a train of 25 or more cars for movement as a unit under one bill of lading.

United Dairy Industry Association (UDIA): A federation of state and regional generic producer promotion organizations. See Dairy Management, Inc.

United Egg Association (UEA): A trade association formed out of an alliance of four separate organizations: (a) United Egg Producers, (b) UEA Further Processor Division, (c) UEA Allied Industry Division, and (d) UEA Producer/Packer Division. The UEA supports the industry by providing services including government relations, market information, egg marketing, egg exports, statistics, communications, product and service programs, and quality assurance programs on food safety, the environment, and animal well-being.

United Egg Producers (UEP): Organized in 1968 to support the egg industry through price discovery activities, production and marketing information, creation of an image of a unified industry leadership, working with the USDA and lobbying Congress and the Administration, and championing a strong industry promotion effort. See United Egg Association (UEA).

United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-449): Signed into law September 28, 1988. The law implemented the bilateral trade agreement between the U.S. and Canada, including agricultural trade. The agreement would phase out tariffs between the two countries over ten years and revise other trade rules.

Unitized bale: bale of burley tobacco consisting of an even number of traditional burley bales with one additional bale opened and evenly arranged on top, all securely bound with metal wires to form a rectangular cube.

Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE): A = RKLSCP, where A is the computed soil loss per unit area over a specified time; it is usually expressed as tons per acre per year. The factors R, K, and S reflect characteristics of climate and land that generally cannot be modified by human activity, designed to influence erosion rates: amount and intensity of rainfall (R), soil erodibility (K), and steepness of field slope (S). The factor representing length of slope (L) can be reduced by installing terraces that effectively break the naturally occurring slope length into smaller segments. The remaining two factors reflect the effects of human activities on erosion rates: soil cover and management practices (C), and supporting conservation practices (P). See Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE).

Unmanufactured tobacco: Stemmed and unstemmed leaf tobacco, stems, trimmings, and scrap tobacco.

Unobligated balance: Funding that has been approved or is available but not yet committed to any particular purpose.

Unobligated balance(s): (1) The portion of budget authority that has not yet been obligated. When budget authority is provided for one fiscal year, any unobligated balances at the end of that year expire and are no longer available for obligation. When budget authority is provided for a specific number of years, any unobligated balances are carried forward and are available for obligation during the years specified. When budget authority is provided for an unspecified number of years, the unobligated balances are carried forward indefinitely, until either they are expended or rescinded, the purpose for which they were provided is accomplished, or no disbursements have been made for two consecutive years. (2) Funding that has been approved or is available, but not yet committed to any particular purpose. See Rescission.

Unreasonable adverse effect(s) on the environment: As defined by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, (a) any unreasonable risk to man or the environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide, or (b) a human dietary risk from residues that result from a use of a pesticide in or on food that is inconsistent with standards established under the food and drug laws.

Unregulated supply plant: supply plant that does not qualify as a pool supply plant and is not a plant fully regulated under another federal milk marketing order, a producer-handler plant, or an exempt plant.

Unsaturated: See Fatty acid(s).

Unshorn pelts: The skin of the sheep with wool still attached to the skin. Although not eligible for marketing assistance loans, unshorn pelts are eligible for loan deficiency payments based on the rate for ungraded wool.

Unsound grain(s): All grains that have become unsuitable for human consumption because of rot, mold, bacterial attack, or other influences including heat-damaged grains.

Unwilling rider: In a marketing order or a research and promotion order, a producer, handler, or importer bound by terms of the order who would prefer not to participate. See Free rider.

Update; updating: (1) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1101), producers may choose to recalculate base acreage for commodity program purposes based upon the acreage planted in crop years 1998 through 2001 to a covered commodity plus acreage devoted to a covered commodity during the same period for which a producer was prevented from planting. (2) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1102(e)), payment yields for calculating counter-cyclical payments for covered commodities may be updated during sign-up at the option of the producer by either (a) adding the payment yield applicable for direct payments for covered commodities on the farm and 70 percent of the difference between average yields for covered commodities for the crop years 1998 through 2002 (throwing out years with zero acreage) and the payment yield applicable for 2002 direct payments (Agricultural Market Transition Act), or (b) using 93.5 percent of the yield average for covered commodities in the 1998 through 2001 crop years (throwing out years with zero acreage). (3) The proving of actual verifiable production using evidence such as scale tickets, loan deficiency payments, crop insurance appraisals, or sales records. Crops for which tangible records of measurable production are not common, such as crops that were grazed, harvested as silage or hay, or fed on the farm, may use loan deficiency payments on record at Farm Service Agency county offices to establish farm yields. If LDPs are unavailable but crop insurance records or other FSA records indicate the crop was grazed, harvested as silage or hay, or fed on the farm, then theFSA may assign a yield based on the actual yield for three similar farms. In cases when a producer cannot meet any of these requirements or they have experienced abnormally low yields, 75 percent of the county average yield will be used. SeeAssigned yield(s).

Updated payment yield: See Update; updating.

Upland cotton: fiber plant developed in the U.S. from stock native to Mexico and Central America. It is the predominant type of cotton grown in the U.S. and in most major cotton-producing countries of the world. It includes all cotton grown in the continental U.S., except Sea Island and American Pima cotton. Staple length of upland cotton ranges from 3/4 inch to 1-1/4 inches, averaging 1-3/32 inches.

Upland Cotton First Handler Marketing Certificate Program: program that permitted cotton nonrecourse loans to be repaid at the world market price level when previously such loans could be repaid only at 70 percent of the world market price. The value difference was provided by commodity certificates. The program was discontinued under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 following removal of any statutory minimum to the loan repayment rate.

Upland Cotton Marketing Certificate Program: Authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 and reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1207) and known as the Step 2 program. It is designed to re-establish and maintain the competitive position in world trade of U.S.-grown upland cotton and textile goods made in the U.S. from upland cotton through the use of payments to eligible domestic textile manufacturers and exporters. Step 2 requires the USDA to issue cotton user marketing certificates or cash payments, under certain circumstances, to domestic users (such as textile mills) and exporters of cotton. The Step 2 certificates help to bridge part of the gap between the price of U.S. and foreign growths by “buying down” part of the difference between the U.S. price and the world price. Step 2 is mandatory unless the adjusted world price is 135 percent or more than the marketing assistance loan rate. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1207 (a)(4)), the threshold for calculating cotton user marketing certificates and their value has been suspended through July 31, 2006. See Extra-long Staple Cotton Competitiveness Program.

Upland cotton program: The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 provided for fixed, but declining, transition payments, nonrecourse marketing assistance loans with marketing loan provisions, and loan deficiency payments for the 1996-2002 cottoncrops. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Title I) amended the program to provide a system of direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, and nonrecourse loans with marketing loan provisions through 2007.

Upland wildlife habitat: Habitat at a higher elevation outside the riparian-wetland and aquatic zones that provides the necessary environment required for wildlife adapted to the area to complete their life cycles, including air, food, cover, water, and spatial requirements.

Upland(s): Land at a higher elevation than the alluvial plain or low stream terrace; all lands outside the riparian-wetland and aquatic zones.

Upside down: The situation when the cost of funds to a credit institution is higher than the retail interest rate charged to the customer.

UR: Uruguay Round

URAA: Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture

Urban: (1) A concept defining an area that has a population of 2,500 or more inhabitants. (2) See Urban(ized) area(s).

Urban agriculture (UA): A type of food and nonfood production that is integrated into the urban economic and ecological system. Urban agriculture is located within (intra-urban) or on the fringe (peri-urban) of a town, city, or metropolis. It grows or raises, processes, and distributes a diversity of food and nonfood products. A distinguishing characteristic is the use or reuse of largely human and material resources, products, and services found in and around the urban area. Urban agriculture, in turn, supplies human and material resources, products, and services largely to the urban area.

Urban and Community Forestry Program: Forest Service program that helps people in urban areas and community settings sustain shade trees, forest lands, and open spaces. The program (a) helps state forestry agencies, local and tribal governments, and the private sector improve natural resource management of trees and forests in urban areas and community settings; (b) encourages and facilitates the active involvement of volunteers in the management and protection of their community’s natural resources; and (c) analyzes, develops, disseminates, and demonstrates scientific information about protecting, managing, and maintaining community forest resources. See Economic Action Programs, and Landowner Assistance Programs.

Urban(ized) area(s): An area, defined by the existence of one or more central places and the adjacent fringe area, that has a total population of at least 50,000. See Rural, and Rural area(s).

Urban-wildland interface: See Wildland-urban interface.

UREC: Unavoidable residual environmental contamination

Uruguay Round (UR): Launched in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 1986, the negotiating agenda covered a complete range of trade policy issues including potential rules governing trade in services and intellectual property. Disputes on issues involving agriculture, trade in services, market access, antidumping rules, and the creation of a new, permanent institution extended the round until an agreement was signed April 15, 1994, in Marrakesh, Morocco.

Uruguay Round Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT): See Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).

Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS): See Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS).

Uruguay Round Agreement(s); Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA): multilateral trade agreement, negotiated under the auspices of GATT, designed to open world agricultural markets. The Uruguay Round agricultural agreement covers four areas: export subsidies, market access, internal supports, and sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It is one of the 29 individual legal texts included under an umbrella agreement establishing the World Trade Organization. Under the agreement, countries agreed to substantially reduce agricultural support and protection by establishing disciplines in the areas of market access, domestic support, and export subsidies. Under market access, countries agreed to open markets by prohibiting nontariff trade barriers (including quantitative import restrictions,variable import levies, discretionary import licensing, and voluntary export restraints), converting existing nontariff trade barriers to tariffs, and reducing tariffs. The URAA signatory countries also agreed to reduce expenditures on export subsidies and the quantity of agricultural products exported with subsidies, and prohibit the introduction of new export subsidies for agricultural products. Domestic support reductions were realized through commitments to reduce an aggregate measure of support, a numerical measure of the value of most trade-distorting domestic policies. The agreement was to be implemented over a six-year period, 1995-2000. Also Agreement on Agriculture. See World Trade Organization (WTO).

Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-465): The Act to approve and implement the trade agreements concluded at the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations.

USA Rice Council: See USA Rice Federation.

USA Rice Federation: A national industry association representing producers, millers, and allied businesses. Working on their behalf, the USA Rice Federation conducts programs to advance the use and consumption of U.S.-grown rice in domestic and international markets. The USA Rice Federation was formed in 1994 when the rice industry’s three national associations (USA Rice Council, U.S. Rice Producers’ Group, and Rice Millers’ Association) came together to form a national umbrella organization to serve the industry.

USAID: U.S. Agency for International Development

USAIP: U.S. Animal Identification Plan

USDA Hispanic-Serving Institutions Education Partnerships Grants Program: See Hispanic-Serving Institutions Education Grants Program.

USDA home page: The USDA internet home page address is http://www.usda.gov/ and includes sections entitled “Welcome to USDA,” “Newsroom,” “What’s New,” “Agencies, Services & Programs,” “USDA Offices,” “Subject,” and “Search/Help.”

USDA NAD: Also NAD. See National Appeals Division.

Use class(es)(milk): See Class I (milk), (use); Class II (milk), (use); Class III (milk), (use); and Class IV (milk), (use).

Use it or lose it: A characterization of water use by individuals or groups holding water rights contracts in western states. If the party with water rights uses less than its maximum allotment of water, subsequent rights to the unused portion of the full allotment can, under certain circumstances, be transferred to another party. See Federal reserved water, and Prior appropriation doctrine.

Use-value assessment: See Differential assessment(s).

User fees: The requirement that beneficiaries of government services repay some or all of actual costs incurred to provide the services, as a means to directly support the applicable government program, to meet general budget goals, or limit user demand.

USFWS: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

USGC: U.S. Grains Council

USGSA: U.S. Grain Standards Act

USLE: Universal Soil Loss Equation

USNE: U.S. Northern Europe price

USTR: U.S. Trade Representative

USW: U.S. Wheat Associates

USWA: U.S. Warehouse Act of 1916

Utility breeds (poultry): The traditional “barnyard” birds, bred for a combination of egg-laying abilities and meat-production capabilities. These are all-purpose breeds.

Utility grade (pork): All swine carcasses with an unacceptable quality grade of lean and belly thickness, as well as all carcasses that have soft or oily fat.

Utilization rate (dairy): The percentage of milk produced within a federal milk marketing order that is utilized in the different milk classes (I, II, III, IV).

Utilization research: Study of how a commodity can be used, in contrast with production research which is a study of how a commodity can be produced more efficiently.

Utilization; utilize(d)(s); utilizing: The terms utilization, use, and consumption are interchanged with the terms disposition and disappearance. In a broad sense, it may refer to specific uses such as food, feed, seed, or industrial.