R: Rainfall-runoff erosivity (factor)

R (rainfall-runoff erosivity factor): See Rainfall-runoff erosivity (factor) (R), Revised Universal Soil Loss equation (RUSLE), and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

RA: Revenue assurance

RA-HP: Revenue assurance with harvest price option

RA-HPO: Revenue assurance with harvest price option

RAC: Raw agricultural commodity(ies)

Raceway(s): A fish culture method utilizing concrete (also earth, stone, metal, and plastic) chutes and high-quality flowing water, constructed to mimic a stream. The fish are in a confined area with a continuous flow of water passing through the confined area. Raceways can either be a natural flow system, using the natural flow of a river or stream, or a closed system where the water from the raceway flows through a series of ponds and then is pumped into a header pond that flows back into the raceway. The water area for a closed system is the surface acres of the raceway and of all associated ponds. The area for a natural flow system is the surface acres that the raceway occupies. The predominant specie raised in a raceway system is trout. Also Flow-through raceway; flow-through system. See Pond(s).

Radio frequency identification (RFID): An automated identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using RFID tags or transponders, that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. In animal identification, an identification method utilizing radio frequency technology included in devices such as ear tags, boluses, implants (injections), and tag attachments (transponders that work in concert with ear tags).

Rainfall-runoff erosivity (factor) (R): An indication of the two most important characteristics of a storm determining its erosivity: amount of rainfall, and peak intensity sustained over an extended period. When other factors are constant, storm losses from rainfall are directly proportional to the product of the total kinetic energy of the storm (E) times its maximum 30-minute intensity (I). Storms of less than 0.5 inches are not included in the erosivity computations because these storms generally add little to the total Rvalue. R factors represent the average storm Erodibility Index values over a 22-year record. See Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

Raised (inventory): An animal that was born into and kept within the business entity. See Purchased (inventory).

Rake: An implement that turns the row of hay over so that the bottom side will dry.

Ram(s): Uncastrated male sheep of any age that are typically part of the breeding herd for raising lambs. See Buck.

RAMP: Rural Abandoned Mine Program

RAMP: Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program

RAMP: See Rural Abandoned Mine Program (RAMP).

Random sampling (scouting): scouting method that relies upon continuous inspections throughout most of a field. It is better suited for regions with variable soils within fields. See Point sampling (scouting), Sample(s); sampling, and Scout(ing).

Range: Land supporting indigenous vegetation that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed and is managed as a natural ecosystem. See Rangeland(s).

Range condition(s): The quality of rangeland reflected in its ability, within specific vegetative areas, to support various levels of productivity in accordance with range management objectives and the land-use planning process. Range conditions relate to soil quality, forage values (whether seasonal or year round), wildlife habitat, watershed and plant communities, the present state of vegetation of a rangeland site in relation to the potential plant community for that site, and the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of vegetation in a plant community resemble that of the desired community for that site.

Range improvement(s): Any activity or program on or relating to rangelands that is designed to improve production of forage, change vegetative composition, control patterns of use, provide water, stabilize soil and water conditions, and provide habitat for livestock and wildlife. The term includes, but is not limited to, structures, treatment projects, and use of mechanical means to accomplish the desired results.

Range(land) management: The studying, conserving, managing, protecting, enhancing, and sustaining of the varied resources of rangelands.

Rangeland(s): (1) Land, primarily in the West, that is used for the grazing of animals rather than for growing crops. (2) Land that is predominantly in grasses, grasslike plants, or shrubs suitable for grazing and browsing. Rangeland includes natural grasslands, savannahs, many wetlands, some deserts, tundra, and certain shrub communities. It also includes areas seeded to native vegetation or adapted and introduced species that are managed like native vegetation.

Rapeseed: A cool season oilseed plant, in the mustard family, whose oil had been used primarily for industrial uses prior to 1985. Since 1985 when the Food and Drug Administration found its oil safe for food uses, its production has expanded rapidly in the U.S. See Canola.

Rapid assay(s): Diagnostic tests using emerging technology to identify and remove impurities from foods before they reach the consumer. See Antibody (based) assay(s), and Nucleic acid (based) assay(s).

Raptors: Birds of prey.

Rate of return on assets (ROA): A profitability measure representing the rate of return on business assets during an accounting period. ROA is calculated by dividing the dollar return to assets during the accounting period by the value of assets at the beginning of the period or the average value of assets over the period.

Rate of return on equity (ROE): A profitability measure representing the rate of return of the equity capital that owners have invested in a business. ROE is calculated by dividing the dollar return to equity capital during an accounting period by the value of equity capital at the beginning of the period or the average value of equity capital over the period.

Ration conditioners: The use of molasses, fat, or water in animal feed to help improve acceptance.

Ration(s): Feed fed to an animal during a 24-hour period.

Ratite: The family of birds including ostriches, emus, and rheas.

Ratoon crop(ping): The cultivation of an additional crop (such as sugarcane and rice) from the regrowth of stubbles of a main crop after its harvest, thereby avoiding replanting. For program purposes, a ratoon crop does not qualify as double cropping. Production from the second crop may be added to the first crop when updating yields for determining counter-cyclical payments. See Double-crop(ping)(ped), Intercropping, Mixed cropping, Relay cropping, and Sequential cropping.

Raw agricultural commodity(ies) (RAC): As defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in their unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.

Raw cane sugar: Partially purified sucrose that is crystallized from cane juice without further purification.

Raw or natural state: Products that are unaltered by any process other than cleaning, grading, coating, sorting, trimming, mixing, conditioning, drying, dehulling, shelling, chilling, cooling, blanching, or fumigating.

Raw sugar: Any sugar, whether or not principally of crystalline structure, that is to be further refined or improved in quality.

Raw value: The equivalent value of any quantity of sugar compared to raw sugar testing 96 sugar degrees.

RBEG: Rural Business Enterprise grants

RBOG: Rural Business Opportunity grants

RBP: Restrictive business practice(s)

RBRNSLA: Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act

RBS: Rural Business-Cooperative Service

RC&D: Resource Conservation and Development Program

RCA: Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977

RCAP: Rural Community Advancement Program

RCWP: Rural Clean Water Program

RDA: Rural Development Administration

RDIF: Rural Development Insurance Fund

rDNA: Recombinant DNA

RDTF: Rural Development Through Forestry

Re-establish(ed) species: The establishment of a population of a species in a location or region where it historically occurred but no longer occurs naturally.

REA: Rural Electrification Administration

Reaction: A chemical reaction is a dissociation, recombination, or rearrangement of atoms.

READEO: Regional Emergency Animal Disease Eradication Organization

Real estate loans: Farm Credit Banks may make or participate with other lenders in long-term real estate mortgage loans in rural areas and to producers or harvesters of aquatic products for a term of not less than five nor more than 40 years.

Real rate of interest: The rate of interest earned after adjusting to the average rate of inflation.

Reamortization; reamortized: For the purpose of avoiding a default, the restructuring of a loan in which there is an existing delinquency of principal and interest. Under reamortization, the existing interest rate is applied to the remaining principal over the life of the original loanterm. The delinquency, or arrearage, is typically “capitalized” by adding the delinquent amount into the principal amount and recalculating the new payments using the existing interest rate and loan term. Although the payment amount will go up, the delinquency is eliminated and the repayment of the delinquent amount is spread over the life of the loan. Reamortization can be accompanied with (a) an interest rate reduction, (b) an extension of the loan term, and (c) a reduction in the principal amount. Also Capitalization of arrears.

REAP: Rural Economic Area Partnership

Reapportionment: A revision by the Office of Management and Budget of a previous apportionment of budgetary resources for an appropriation or fund account. Agency requests for reapportionment are usually submitted to OMB as soon as a change in previous apportionment becomes necessary due to changes in amounts available, program requirements, or cost factors. A revision would ordinarily cover the same period, project, or activity covered in the original apportionment.

Reappropriation(s): Congressional action that permits all or part of the unobligated portion of an appropriation that has expired, or would otherwise expire, to remain available for obligation for the same or different purposes.

Reasonable certainty of no harm: Under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the replacing of the Delaney Clause for pesticide residues on raw and processed foods. The tolerance level is that level at which the aggregate exposure (including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information) to the pesticide chemical residue will be lower, by an ample margin of safety, than the level at which the pesticide chemical residue will not cause or contribute to any known or anticipated harm to public health. In general, reasonable certainty of no harm is the application of a hundred-fold safety factor to the no observable effect level.

Reassignment of deficits: For sugar marketing allotments, the USDA may reallocate allotments in effect if any processor of sugarcane or sugarbeets will be unable to market sugar covered by the allotment.

Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR): The Environmental Protection Agency process through which a decision is reached on whether or not to re-register suspect pesticides, issue a notice of intent to cancel or suspend, or hold a hearing. The presumption arises when there is a substantial question about the safety of the pesticide when measured against objective risk criteria.

REC: Rural Electric Cooperative(s)

Recall (meat and poultry): The voluntary removal of meat or poultry from commerce when there is reason to believe it may be adulterated or misbranded. It may be initiated by the manufacturer or distributor of the meat or poultry or at the request of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. To date, no company has ever refused a request from the FSIS to recall a potentially unsafe food. If a company should refuse to recall their product, the FSIS has the legal authority to detain and seize meat and poultry products in commerce when there is reason to believe they are hazardous to public health or if other consumer protection requirements are not met.

Recapture: The ability of the USDA to recover loan funds subject to a debt write-down action if the property securing the debt should appreciate in value in the future. See Shared appreciation agreement (SAA).

Recapture event: Under a shared appreciation agreement, recapture takes place at the end of the term of the agreement, or (a) upon the conveyance of the property, (b) upon the repayment of the loan, or (c) if the borrower ceases farming operations. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 5314) provides that the USDA may modify a shared appreciation agreement, on which a payment has become delinquent, by using loan servicing tools if the default was beyond the control of the borrower and the borrower acted in good faith in attempting to repay the agreement. A reamortized loan may not exceed 25 years from the date of the original amortization agreement or provide for reducing the outstanding principal or unpaid interest due on the loan.

Recapture payment(s): See Recapture event.

RECD: Rural Economic and Community Development

Receipt(s): Collections of money (sometimes revenues) that primarily result from taxes and similar government powers to compel payment, including income taxes, payroll taxes, excise taxes, and customs duties. They do not include offsetting receipts or offsetting collections from the federal government’s business-like activities, such as the entrance fees at national parks, or collections by one government account from another.

Receiving station (milk): A facility where milk is collected from farm bulk milk trucks, stored, then shipped, usually in tractor-trailer units, to another destination.

Receiving stations (tobacco): Centralized buying points utilized for the direct purchasing of tobacco. Most commonly, it is the bypassing by tobacco companies of warehouses where flue-cured tobacco and burley tobacco have traditionally been marketed in favor of contracting directly with individual tobacco producers.

Recessive; recessive gene(s): A gene that is inferior to another gene that controls the same trait. The inferior gene does not get expressed in the presence of a dominant gene. Reciprocity: A traditional principle of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations that implied an approximate equality of concessions accorded and trade benefits received among or between participants in a negotiation. Under GATT, developing countries were not obliged to offer fully reciprocal concessions, a general principal that has been maintained in the World Trade Organization.

Reciprocity: A traditional principle of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations that implied an approximate equaltiy of concessions accorded and trade benefits recieved among or between participants in a negociation. Under GATT, developing countries were not obliged to offer fully reciprocal concessions, a general principal that has been maintained in the World Trade Organization.

Recirculating systems: Systems used to raise fish in a controlled environment. The fish are raised in tanks with continuously flowing water that is recirculated through a water treatment system and returned to the production tanks. The treatment may include mechanical filters to remove solids and biological filters to degrade the biological oxygen demand and nitrify the ammonia. Most recirculating systems replace about 10 percent of the system water volume daily to make up for evaporation and inefficiencies in the filtration process. See Pond(s), Raceway(s), Net pen, and Tank(s); circular tank (culture).

Reclaimed water: See Reclamation.

Reclamation: (1) The reclaiming and reusing of wastewater, whether it be from agricultural, municipal, or industrial sources, or naturally impaired surface and groundwater. In particular, reclamation is associated with efforts to reclaim western water resources. Potential sources of water for reclamation include agricultural runoff, municipal and industrial wastewater, brackish surface and groundwater, and sources that contain toxins or other contaminants. Also Water recycling. (2) The process of reconverting disturbed lands, such as surfaced-mined lands, to their former and other productive uses. See Rural Abandoned Mine Program (RAMP).

Reclamation districts: Local governmental agencies organized for (a) developing and implementing flood control measures, (b) wastewater transmission and treatment, (c) improving groundwater conservation, (d) supplying fresh water, (e) providing municipal utilities, (f) water improvement, (g) drainage, and (h) navigation.

Reclamation Recycling and Water Conservation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-266): Signed into law October 9, 1996. The Act authorizes the Bureau of Reclamation to participate in the design, planning, and construction of 16 new water reclamation and reuse projects.

Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-293) (43 U.S.C. §§ 390aa to zz-l): Signed into law October 12, 1982, and amended by P.L. 100-203 and P.L. 103-437. The Act requires districts that have certain repayment or water service contracts with the U.S. to develop water conservation plans that include definite goals, appropriate water conservation measures, and a time schedule for meeting the water conservation objectives.

Reclamation Wastewater and Groundwater Studies and Facilities Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-575): Signed into law October 30, 1992. The Act authorized the Bureau of Reclamation to participate in feasibility studies, research, demonstration projects, the construction of five specific water recycling projects, and to promote water recycling as a viable option to expand western water resources.

Recombinant DNA (rDNA): Formed by combining segments of DNA from different organisms.

Reconcentration: The process for moving a warehouse-stored loan commodity to another warehouse location.

Reconciliation: See Budget reconciliation.

Reconstitute(d); reconstitution: (1) The blending or mixing together of original constituents in the same proportions as found in the original complex substance. (2) The reorganization of a farm enterprise for the purpose of evading federal program limitations or prohibitions.

Reconstituted milk: Fluid milk recombined from ingredients (nonfat dry milk, condensed milk, cream, butter, and butter oil) or condensed milk. The product results from the mixing together and rehydration of a dried product of milk with water. For example, nonfat dry milk and water yields reconstituted skim milk. Adding cream or butter will yield reconstituted whole or lowfat milk. Adding vegetable oil yields filled milk.

Recorded yield: Under crop insurance, either an assigned yield or a producer’s actual production history. See Assigned yield(s), and Actual production history (APH).

Recourse Loan Program for Commercial Processors of Dairy Product: See Recourse loan(s).

Recourse loan(s): loan in which commodities may be used as collateral, but which must be repaid in cash rather than delivering the commodities, as permitted under a nonrecourse loan. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 137) made recourse loans available for high-moisture feed grains and seed cotton. A recourse loan program was also authorized for commercial processors of dairy products following the eventual elimination of the dairy price-support program (Sec. 142), and for sugar processors when the federal government restricted the level of sugar imports to less than 1.5 million short tons. (Sec. 156). The recourse loans for high-moisture feed grains and seed cotton were reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1209). The dairy price-support program was not eliminated, and authority for a recourse loan program for dairy processors was repealed by the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002. A nonrecourse loan program for processors of domestically grown sugarcane and sugarbeets was authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1401(a)). See Nonrecourse loan(s), and Recourse seed cotton loans.

Recourse seed cotton loans: Recourse loans are available on seed cotton as authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1209). Producers will be charged a loan servicing fee. To redeem seed cotton pledged as collateral, a producer must repay the loan plus interest and charges. If redeemed, following ginning, producers may pledge the lint cotton as collateral for a nonrecourse loan.

Red meat(s): The color of certain meat due to the presence of myoglobin. Oxygen is delivered to muscles by the red cells in the blood. One of the proteins in meat, myoglobin, holds the oxygen in the muscle. The amount of myoglobin in animal musclesdetermines the color of meat. Beef is called a red meat because it contains more myoglobin than chicken or fish. Other red meats are veal, lamb, pork, and mutton. See White meat(s).

Red rice: Whole or large broken kernels of pest rice on which there is an appreciable amount of red bran. Red rice is an annual grass, adapted to an aquatic habitat, that shatters easily when ripe.

Redeem(ed) (loans): The satisfaction of a loan by providing cash or certificates and receiving the pledged grain collateral in return.

Redleg: See Rural Economic Development loans and grants.

Redry(ied)(ing)(ies): The process of preparing tobacco for storage in hogsheads. First, moisture is removed from the tobacco leaves by applying heat, then the leaves are injected with steam until a pre-determined moisture level is reached, thus insuring a uniform moisture content.

Reduced acres: See Acreage Conservation Reserve (ACR).

Reduced fat: A product that contains at least a 25 percent reduction in total fat per reference amount, when compared to an appropriate reference food.

Reduced lactose milk: Commercially prepared milk in which the lactose content has been reduced at a processing plant by adding the liquid enzyme lactase to pasteurized milk and storing it for 24 hours. When the appropriate level of reduction has been reached, usually 70 percent, the milk is pasteurized again. Reduced lactose milk tastes sweeter than traditional milk.

Reduced yield (disaster payments): Under former programs, payments made to eligible producers in compensation for reduced harvests because of a natural disaster. Producers of wheat, feed grains, peanuts, soybeans, and sugar were eligible if the total quantity harvested was less than 60 percent of the farm’s established program yield times the acreage actually planted to the affected commodity. Rice and upland cotton producers were eligible for disaster payments if the total quantity of crop harvested was less than 75 percent of the farm’s established program yield. Producers were not eligible for reduced yield disaster payments if prevented planting crop insurance was available in their county. Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 196), a reduced yield payment was available through the noninsured crop disaster assistance program on crops for which catastrophic coverage crop insurance was not available. An eligible producer must have been in an area that suffered a qualifying loss due to a natural disaster and must have harvested less than 50 percent of the expected individual yield for that crop. See Crop Disaster Program (CDP), Disaster payments, and Prevented planting disaster payments.

Reduced-till(age): See Mulch-till(age).

REE: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA

REEIS: Research, Education, and Economics Information System

reenhouse effect: The effect produced as greenhouse gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth’s atmosphere, but prevent most of the outgoing infra-red radiation of the surface and lower atmosphere from escaping into outer space. Life on Earth requires a natural greenhouse effect.

Reference sire: bull used as a benchmark in progeny-testing other bulls (young sires). Progeny by reference sires in several herds enable comparisons to be made between bulls not producing progeny in the same herd.

Referendum: In relation to food and agricultural policy, a vote by producers of a specific commodity for a proposed program that will obligate all producers to participate if a specified percentage of producers vote in favor.

Refined sugar: Sugar that has passed through the refining process (involving removal of impurities) making it more suitable for direct human consumption or use in the manufacture of other foods.

Refined Sugar Re-Export Program: program administered by the USDA that permits licensed refineries to import world-priced raw cane sugar duty-free and refine it for re-export, subject to certain conditions. Under this program, raw cane sugar that is imported must be re-exported as refined sugar or sold to a producer of sugar-containing products that incorporates the refined sugar into products for export. See Polyhydric Alcohol Program, and Sugar-Containing Products Re-export Program.

Reforestation Trust Fund: A trust, established by the National Forest Management Act of 1976, to finance reforestation and timber stand improvements on National Forest lands.

Reforestation; reafforestation: The re-establishment of a tree crop on forest land.

Refuge(s) (Bt): A common management technique used to delay, by up to ten years, the occurrence of field-level resistance to Bt insecticidal endotoxins. Refuges are areas where insects are not exposed to Bt endotoxins. Insects that emerge from these areas are available to mate with insects that emerge from Bt fields and are presumed to have developed resistant genes. The resulting intermating dilutes the occurrence of resistance. The Environmental Protection Agency mandates that refuges be of a certain size and distance from Bt fields to insure greater effectiveness.

Regenerative (sustainable) agriculture: A method of sustainable agriculture that emphasizes regeneration because it (a) enhances the revival of renewable resources essential to the achievement of a sustainable form of agriculture, and (b) is a concept that is relevant to many economic sectors and social concerns.

Regional (investment) board(s): Under the Rural Strategic Investment Program, boards that will administer the program on the local level. The boards are composed of residents of a region that broadly represent diverse public, nonprofit, and private sector interests in investment in the region, including representatives of units of local government and Indian tribes. See National Board on Rural America.

Regional aquaculture centers: See Aquaculture centers.

Regional economic integration (REI): A process towards the progressive removal of economic and possibly political discrimination that exists along national borders and towards a regional union. The five most common tools of integration are: (a) free trade areas, (b) customs unions, (c) common markets, (d) economic union, and (e) political union.

Regional Emergency Animal Disease Eradication Organization (READEO): The Veterinary Services organization that has trained animal health emergency managers and can be mobilized to support and fight an animal disease outbreak. READEO teams operate out of Raleigh, North Carolina, and Fort Collins, Colorado. The teams are trained to confirm the presence of an exotic disease, inspect infected and exposed animals, and appraise the value of animals that may have to be destroyed. The teams can then direct vaccination programs and conduct epidemiological studies, as well as dispose of infected animal carcasses, clean and disinfect premises, set and enforce regulations against disease spread, and control disease vectors.

Regional Pest Management Centers: Formerly the Pesticide Impact Assessment. A Smith-Lever 3(d) program that defines and evaluates the benefits and risks of selected pesticides having critical agricultural and forestry uses. See Smith-Lever 3(d) funds.

Registered cattle: Cattle with documentation certifying their breed purity or ancestry. See Purebred, and Seedstock (operation).

Registered pesticides: See Registration (pesticides).

Registered seed(s): The progeny of foundation seeds normally grown to produce certified seed.

Registration (pesticides): Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Environmental Protection Agency must register a pesticide if the agency determines that its chemical composition seems to justify the efficacy claims made for it, that the manufacturer has complied with FIFRA labeling and data submission requirements, and that the pesticide will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, when used as intended and “in accordance with widespread and commonly recognized practice.” See Experimental-use permits (EUP).

Regolith: The unconsolidated rock and mineral fragments found at the surface of the earth.

Rehabilitation (watershed structure): For purposes of the Natural Resources Conservation Service with respect to a watershed structure, necessary work to extend the service life of the structure and meet applicable safety and performance standards, including (a) protecting the integrity of the structure or prolonging the useful life of the structure beyond the original evaluated life expectancy; (b) correcting damage to the structure from a catastrophic event; (c) correcting the deterioration of structural components that are deteriorating at an abnormal rate; (d) upgrading the structure to meet changed land use conditions in the watershed served by the structure or changed safety criteria applicable to the structure; or (e) decommissioning the structure. SeeWatershed Rehabilitation Program.

Rehabilitation of Aging Dams: See Watershed Rehabilitation Program.

REI: Rural economic integration

Reimbursement for net realized losses: Commodity Credit Corporation operations are financed by borrowing from the U.S. Treasury. Realized losses that occur during the operation of CCC programs are financed by this borrowing authority until reimbursed by appropriations. Under P.L. 87-155, annual appropriations were authorized each fiscal year, beginning in 1961, to replenish the CCC capital structure by reimbursing the CCC revolving fund for net realized losses resulting from the operation of the CCC programs. TheOmnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 amended P.L. 87-155 to allow for losses to be reimbursed by means of a current, indefinite appropriation, but the net realized losses of the CCC continue to be reimbursed by annual appropriations. TheAgriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000, authorized a current, indefinite appropriation up to the amount of actual losses reflected on the books of the CCC as of the close of the immediately preceding year. The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002, authorized the CCC to be reimbursed for net realized losses sustained but not previously reimbursed.

Reinsurance year: The period from July 1 of any year through June 30 of the following year, and identified by reference to the year containing June. All eligible crop insurance contracts with sales closing dates within the reinsurance year are subject to the terms of the agreement applicable to that reinsurance year.

Reinsurance; reinsured: A method of transferring some of an insurer’s risk to other parties. See Reinsured (reinsurance) company(ies); reinsurers; reinsured, and Reinsured (crop insurance) policy; reinsurance policy.

Reinsured (crop insurance) policy; reinsurance policy: Policies sold by private companies under guidelines established by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Reinsured companies do their own servicing and adjusting. The FCIC will reimburse for some administrative costs, subsidize part of thepremiums, and bear part of the loss. See Standard Reinsurance Agreement (SRA).

Reinsured (reinsurance) company(ies); reinsurers; reinsured: Private insurance companies that market and provide full service, including claims processing, on crop insurance policies, and that bear increasing risk on such policies. The remainder of losses, if any, is borne by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. The reinsured companies process insurance documents, bill and collect premiums, and pay losses according to the policy agreement and agreements with the FCIC. See Standard Reinsurance Agreement (SRA).

Related Agencies: Under agricultural appropriations, the title that includes the Food and Drug Administration, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the Farm Credit Administration accounts.

Related natural resources: Natural resources that are associated with soil and water, including air, plants, and animals, and the land or water on which they may occur, including grazing land, wetland, forest land, and wildlife habitat.

Relay cropping: A form of intercropping of two or more crops in a sequence, usually by planting the succeeding crop after the flowering but before the harvesting of the preceding crop. See Double-crop(ping)(ped), Intercropping, Mixed cropping, Ratoon crop(ping), and Sequential cropping.

Release price: Formerly, the price at which producers who had grain stored in the Farmer-Owned Reserve could sell it without incurring penalties. The release price was stated as a specific nationwide price or as a percentage level substantially above theprice-support loan level. Under the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, producers could repay an extended FOR loan at any time. The FOR was suspended with the enactment of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.

Remote sensing: The detection or identification of an object, series of objects, or landscape without having the sensor in direct contact with the object.

Render(ing)(ed): (1) The subjecting of remainder animal carcasses to grinding, extraction, heat, or other treatments to convert into by-products for use in feed rations and fertilizers. (2) The process that separates the by-products of muscle food production into fat/oil, water, gel bone, and meat and bone meal.

Renderer: Any person, firm, or corporation engaged in the business of rendering carcasses or parts or products of the carcasses, of cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, or other equines, except rendering conducted under inspection or exemption as provided in 12 U.S.C. §§ 601-624.

Renewable (natural) resource(s): Resources, such as forests, rangelandsoil, and water, that can be restored and improved.

Renewable energy: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Title IX, Sec. 9001), energy derived from a wind, solar, biomass, or geothermal source; hydrogen derived from biomass or water using a wind, solar, biomass, or geothermal energy source.

Renewable energy resource: An energy resource that can be replaced as it is used. Renewable energy resources include solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and biomass. Municipal solid waste is also considered to be a renewable energy resource. See Non-renewable resource and Renewable energy systems.

Renewable energy systems: Systems that provide continuously available energy from renewable resources as opposed to nonrenewable energy such as from coal, oil, gas, and nuclear energy. Such renewable energy systems include active and passive solar systems, hydroenergy (including tidal) systems, geothermal systems, and wind power systems. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6013 and 9001), such systems also include anaerobic digestors and biomass used for energy generation.

Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program: As authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 9006), Rural Business-Cooperative Service grants available to eligible agricultural producers and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems and make energy improvements.

Renewable Resources Extension Act (of 1978) (RREA): (P.L. 95-306) (16 U.S.C. §§ 1671 et seq.)Signed into law June 30, 1978. The Act, as amended, provides funding to all states for an expanded and comprehensive Extension education program for forest and rangeland renewable resources. Funds are distributed on a formula basis to address forest and rangeland stewardship and health, invasive species, economic opportunities, and fish and wildlife resource issues. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 8101) extended the authority through FY2007. See Sustainable Forestry Outreach Initiative.

Renewable Resources Extension Act (of 1978) (RREA) (P.L. 95-306) (16 U.S.C. §§ 1671 et seq.): Signed into law June 30, 1978. The Act, as amended, provides funding to all states for an expanded and comprehensive Extension education program for forest and rangeland renewable resources. Funds are distributed on a formula basis to address forest and rangeland stewardship and health, invasive species, economic opportunities, and fish and wildlife resource issues. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 8101) extended the authority through FY2007. See Sustainable Forestry Outreach Initiative.

Renewable Resources Extension Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-306) (16 U.S.C. §§ 1671 et seq.): Signed into law June 30, 1978. The Act, as amended, provides funding to all states for an expanded and comprehensive Extension education program for forest and rangeland renewable resources. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 8101) extended the authority through FY2007. See Sustainable Forestry Outreach Initiative.

Renewal Communities (RC): In December 2001, Housing and Urban Development designated forty Renewal Communities as authorized by the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000. The act provides federal tax incentives and a framework for state and local governments to offer incentives and other benefits in exchange for the formation of alliances of local government, businesses, and community-based organizations for the purpose of adopting a comprehensive initiative for jobs development and retention. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Renewed enrollment: Under the Conservation Reserve Program, a subsequent bid to enroll into the program land that was originally subject to a contract after the termination of such contract.

Rennet: An extract from the membranes of calves’ stomachs that contains rennin, an enzyme that aids in coagulating milk or separating curds from whey.

Rennet casein: Produced by the addition of rennet to milk. Casein is the only protein present in the final product. It is insoluble in water and is used to produce materials similar to plastics. There is some use of this product in processed cheese.

Rental assistance: Known as Section 521 and provided by the Rural Housing Service, it is used in conjunction with the rural rental housing loans program to enable low- and very-low-income rural families to afford decent rural rental housing.

Renting quota (tobacco): The payment for the right to grow and sell a specified quantity of tobacco. Generally, the tobacco is grown on the farm to which the quota is assigned.

Reorganization (USDA): Under Title II of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994 and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994, greater authority was given to the Secretary to streamline and reorganize the USDA. The reorganization was to lead to reducing the USDA federal workforce by 11,000 over five years; reducing the number of independent agencies from 43 to 29; closing or consolidating 1,100 field/county offices; combining producer programs into a single Consolidated Farm Service Agency (See Farm Service Agency (FSA)); elevating the USDA food safety functions; and making rural development a priority.

Repair loans and grants: See Rural housing loans and grants (RHS).

Repayment (of advance payments): If a producer on a farm that receives an advance direct payment for a crop year ceases to be a producer on that farm, or the producer’s share in the risk of producing a crop changes, the producer shall be responsible for repaying the USDA the applicable amount of the advance payment before the date the remainder of the direct payment is made.

Replacement(s): Livestock sold for purposes other than slaughter.

Replant(ing); replanted crop: (1) Under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000, the second planting of the first crop on the same acreage in the same crop year, if the replanting is required by the terms of the policy of the crop insurance on the first crop. See First crop, Second crop, and Prevented (from) planting. (2) The procedure whereby the insured re-seeds the same crop on the same insured acreage that had been severely damaged by an insured peril. Some crop insurance policies provide for payments to help offset the cost of replanting.

Report language: Legislative history used as an aid to determine the intention of lawmakers when creating legislation. Report language, especially language that accompanies a conference committee bill, is considered the most authoritative source of legislative history. Legislative history embodied in report language is not law and is therefore not legally binding; yet, it is generally understood that an agency ignores such indications of Congressional intent at its own peril. See Agricultural appropriations, and Authorization(s); authorize(d)(s); authority(ies).

Reporting day: For livestock price reporting purposes, a day on which (a) a packer conducts business regarding livestock committed to the packer, or livestock purchased, sold, or slaughtered by the packer; (b) the USDA is required to make this price information available to the public; and (c) the USDA is open to conduct business.

Reprocessing: The removal of contamination by trimming, washing, rinsing, or vacuuming. See Off-line (offline) (re)processing, and Rework.

Reprogram(ming): Utilization of funds in an appropriation account for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of appropriation. Reprogramming is generally preceded by consultation between the federal agencies and the appropriate Congressional committees. It involves formal notification and, in some instances, opportunity for disapproval by Congressional committees.

Request to lock-in: Available for commodities under loan, stored both on-farm and in warehouses (except cotton). Producers will be able to lock-in a repayment rate at one time for a specific quantity of on-farm stored loan collateral. For warehouse-stored collateral, the amount specified must be the amount pledged as collateral on a warehouse receipt. The lock-in rate is good for 60 days, except for the 14 days before loan maturity.

Reregistration: Since the passage of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) amendments in 1988, the Environmental Protection Agency has been conducting a comprehensive review of older pesticides (those initially registered before November 1, 1984) to consider their health and environmental effects and to make decisions about their future use. The EPA examines health and safety data for these pesticide active ingredients and determines whether they are eligible for reregistration. To be eligible, a pesticide must have a substantially complete data base, and must not cause unreasonable risks to human health or the environment when used in accordance with its approved label directions and precautions.FIFRA, as amended in 1996 by the Food Quality Protection Act, requires that all pesticides meet new safety standards. The EPA must be able to conclude, with “reasonable certainty,” that no harm will come to infants, children, or other sensitive individuals exposed to pesticides. All pesticide exposures (from food, drinking water, and home and garden use) must be considered in determining allowable levels of pesticides in food. The cumulative risks of pesticides and other compounds with common mechanisms of toxicity also must be considered. See Reasonable certainty of no harm, and Risk cup.

Rescheduling; rescheduled (loan): The restructuring of a loan to increase its term for the purpose of avoiding loan default.

Rescission: The consequence of enacted legislation that cancels budget authority previously provided by Congress prior to the time when the authority would otherwise lapse (cease to be available for obligation). The Impoundment Control Act of 1974requires a special message from the President to Congress reporting any proposed rescission of budget authority. These proposals may be accepted, in whole or in part, through the passage of a rescission bill by both Houses of Congress.

Research and promotion order: Commonly funded with checkoff funds. Each such federal order has specific enabling legislation providing details for implementation. Such orders attempt to increase consumer demand (domestic and foreign) through advertising, promotion programs, nutrition education and research, market research, new product and process development, technical assistance, and effectiveness evaluation. See Commodity research and promotion program(s).

Research capacity: The quality and depth of an institution’s research infrastructure as evidenced by its faculty expertise in the natural or social sciences, scientific and technical resources, research environment, library resources, and organizational structures and reward systems for attracting and retaining first-rate research faculty or students at the graduate and post-doctorate levels.

Research equipment grants: The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7401) amends the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 by authorizing the awarding of competitive grants for scientific equipment for use in food and agricultural sciences programs in a college, university, or state cooperative institution. Such grants may not exceed $500,000.

Research Facilities Act (P.L. 88-74) (7 U.S.C. §§ 390 et. seq.): Signed into law July 22, 1963. An Act, as amended, that provided assistance to states wishing to build additional agricultural research facilities at state agricultural experiment stations.

Research Support Agreement (RSA): A cost-reimbursable agreement between the USDA and a state cooperative institution for the USDA to acquire goods and services from the institution.

Research, Education, and Economics Information System (REEIS): As required by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 804), the USDA will develop and carry out a system to monitor and evaluate research and Extension activities conducted or supported by the USDA. The system is to improve public access to research information, and satisfy budget accountability requirements.

Research, Education, and Economics, USDA (REE): The USDA mission area that includes the Agricultural Research Service, the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, the Economic Research Service, the National Agricultural Statistics Service, and the Department of Agriculture Graduate School.

Reservation extension agent(s): See Extension Indian Reservation Program (EIRP).

Reserve: See Farmer-Owned Reserve (FOR).

Reserve land(s): Public lands, administered by the Bureau of Land Management, that are dedicated or set aside and managed for a specific public purpose or program, and that are generally not available for other purposes. See Multiple-use land(s).

Reserve pool: A quantity provision in a fruit and vegetable marketing order requiring that some marketable supplies be withheld from the primary (fresh) market for sale in a secondary food market (such as frozen or processed), for sale in a nonfood use, or forstocks to be sold in a future marketing year.

Reserve stock level: Formerly, in the case of flue-cured tobacco, the greater of 100 million pounds or 15 percent of the national marketing quota for the marketing year immediately preceding the marketing year for which the level was being determined; and in the case of burley tobacco, the greater of 50 million pounds or 15 percent of the national marketing quota for the marketing year immediately preceding the marketing year for which the level was being determined. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1610) changed the required flue-cured tobacco reserve stock level to the greater of 60 million pounds or 10 percent. The reserve stock level adjustment is one component of the calculation (along with manufacturers’ purchase intentions and the average exports for the last three years) used to determine the basic quota level.

Reserve supply level: Generally, a normal year’s domestic consumption and exports plus ten percent of these levels to insure a supply adequate to meet domestic consumption and export needs in years of drought, flood, or other adverse conditions, as well as in years of plenty.

Reserved water: See Federal reserved water.

Residence Instruction Grants for Insular Areas: As authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1491), USDA competitive grants to eligible institutions to (a) strengthen institutional educational capacities, attract and support undergraduate and graduate students, facilitate cooperative initiatives between two or more insular area eligible institutions, or between those institutions and state government or private organizations; (b) improve food and agricultural sciences teaching programs; and (c) conduct undergraduate scholarship programs to assist in meeting national needs for training food and agricultural scientists.

Resident grading (and quality control): Plant inspections, laboratory programs, inspection and grading, and certification of the finished product by an inspector stationed at an Agricultural Marketing Service-approved plant on a full-time basis.

Residential/lifestyle farm(s): Small farms whose operators report they have a major occupation other than farming. For these operators, the health of the off-farm economy is critical. Some operators in this group may view their farms strictly as a hobby that provides a farm lifestyle. For others, the farm provides a residence and may supplement their off-farm income. Some may hope to eventually farm full-time.

Residual market: market serviced after demand has been saturated in more profitable markets.

Residual supplier: A country that furnishes supplies to another country only after the latter has obtained all it can from preferred sources. The U.S. has been called a residual supplier at times when price-support programs maintained prices above world levels, thus providing an incentive for foreign buyers to satisfy demand with less expensive non-U.S. commodities first.

Residue management: See Mulch-till, No-till, Ridge-till(age), and Strip-till(age).

Residue management (seasonal): Managing the amount, orientation, and distribution of crop and other plant residues on the soil surface during part of the year while growing crops in a clean, tilled seedbed.

Residue processing : Operations that cut, crush, or otherwise break down residues in a step preparatory to tillage, harvesting, or planting operation.

Residue(s): (1) The parts of a plant left after the economically useful part has been harvested. (2) A remainder that is retained after the removal of other substances. See Pesticide residue(s).

Resistance: (1) The inherent ability of an animal or plant to resist threatening circumstances such as insect attack, diseases, toxic agents, or infection. (2) In the futures market, the price area above which the market has a reluctance to trade (possibly because of a lack of buying interest at that price level, or because of the abundance of sellers).

Resistance (pesticides): The ability of populations of pests to survive doses of a pesticide that normally are lethal.

Resistance management plans (Bt): Environmental Protection Agency-mandated plans to be implemented by producers growing transgenic crops, in an attempt to delay eventual field-level resistance by insects to the insecticidal qualities of the Bt crops. The most common management technique is the use of refuges where insects are not exposed to Bt endotoxins. The frequency of Bt resistance genes will not increase in the refuges. Insects that emerge from the refuges are available to mate with surviving insects (perhaps with resistance genes) that emerge from the fields with transgenic crops. The inter-mating will dilute the occurrence of resistance genes.

Resistant: Possessing the ability to resist or counteract.

Resource conservation and development loans: Rural Utilities Service resource conservation and development loans made to sponsors of projects approved for operation by the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Such loans are repayable in not more than 30 years with repayment of principal and interest deferred up to five years if necessary. These loans bear interest at the rate based on the average paid on similar Treasury issues. Loans may also be made for watershed and flood prevention. Such loans are made to local organizations for installing, repairing, or improving works of improvement and water storage facilities; for purchasing sites or rights-of-way; and for related costs. These type loans are repayable in not more than 50 years at an interest rate based on specific outstanding obligations of the Treasury.

Resource Conservation and Development Policy Advisory Board (PAB) (16 U.S.C. § 3457): Authorized under the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 and permanently reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 2504). The interagency forum, comprised of a minimum of seven full-time employees of USDA, that advises and recommends policy to the USDA regarding the administration of the Resource Conservation and Development Program.

Resource Conservation and Development Program (RC&D): Authorized under both the Food and Agriculture Act of 1962 and the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, and permanently reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 2504). A program designed to improve the capability of state and local units of government and local nonprofit organizations in rural areas to plan, develop, and carry out programs for resource conservation and development.

Resource conservation district: See Conservation district(s).

Resource conserving crop: Legumes, legume-grass mixtures, legume-small grain mixtures, legume-grass-small grain mixtures, and alternate crop.

Resource conserving crop rotation: crop rotation that includes at least one resource conserving crop and that reduces erosion, maintains or improves soil fertility and tilth, interrupts pest cycles, or conserves water, thereby reducing the need for irrigation.

Resource management plan (RMP): (1) A Bureau of Land Management planning document, prepared in accordance with Sec. 202 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, that has systematic guidelines for making resource management decisions for a resource area. Based on an analysis of an area’s resources, its existing management, and its capability for alternative uses, RMPs are issue oriented and developed by an interdisciplinary team with public participation. (2) The National Forest Management Act of 1976 required the preparation of resource management plans for each unit of the National Forest System. The Department of the Interior must use an interdisciplinary approach, coordinate with state and local resource management efforts, provide for public participation, and provide for multiple-use and sustained yield of products and services.

Resource management system: conservation management system that, when implemented, achieves sustainable use of soil, water, and related natural resources.

Resources: (1) The available means for production. Land, labor, and capital are the basic means of production on farms. Land includes all the raw materials, gifts of nature, or natural resources used in production. Labor includes all the productive skills and energies of human resources. Capital includes all the materials, tools, and equipment. (2) Natural, manufactured, spiritual, physical, and mental supply or assistance.

Response and recovery: In biodefense, once a biological weapons attack is detected, the coordinated federal, state, local, private sector, and international response to mitigate the lethal, medical, psychological, and economic consequences of such attacks. Responses to biological weapons attacks depend on pre-attack planning and preparedness, capabilities to treat casualties, risk communications, physical control measures, medical countermeasures, and decontamination capabilities.

Rest: The avoidance of grazing or harvesting land for a growing season or other specified period of time. See Grazing rest.

Restoration (food): The addition to a food of essential nutrients that are lost during the course of processing or through storage and handling procedures, in amounts that will approximate normal levels.

Restricted eggs: Eggs with cracks or checks in the shell, dirty eggs, incubator rejects, inedible eggs, leakers, or loss eggs.

Restricted-entry interval: The mandatory period of time between application of a chemical and entry to the treated area.

Restricted-use pesticides (registration): Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, if the Environmental Protection Agency decides that a pesticide may generally cause unreasonable adverse effects, the EPA must classify it (or certain of its uses) for restricted use. A pesticide that is classified for restricted use may only be applied by or under the direct supervision of a certified applicator. In addition, under certain conditions, the EPA may subject pesticides classified for restricted use to whatever other restrictions EPA deems appropriate.

Restrictive agreements: A type of differential assessment that requires landowners to sign contracts to keep land in agricultural use for ten years or more as a condition of eligibility for tax relief. If a landowner gives notice of intent to terminate a contract, the assessed value of the property increases during the balance of the term to the full fair market value.

Restrictive business practice(s) (RBP): Acts or behavior of enterprises, whether private or government-controlled, that abuse a dominant economic position and limit access to markets or otherwise unduly restrain competition. Such practices include collusion to fix export or importprices, allocate markets or customers, practice discriminatory pricing, set prices at which export goods can be resold, or otherwise restrict imports and exports.

Restructure(d); restructuring: See Loan restructuring.

Retail cuts: Cuts of meat in sizes that are purchased by the consumer.

Retained (crop insurance): As applied to ultimate net losses, net book premium, or book of business, the remaining liability for ultimate net losses and the right to the associated net book premiums after all reinsurance has been ceded to the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

Retains: Patronage refunds, allocated to members in the form of “written notices,” that are retained by the cooperative for equity funding.

Retaliation: The suspension of concessions or other obligations under a trade agreement or the imposition of other trade barriers by a government in response to the violation of a trade agreement or the initiation of other unfair trade practices by another government.

Retentate: The portion of the processing stream that is retained by the membrane during ultrafiltration. This stream contains compounds that are too large to pass through the pores of the membrane. See Permeate.

Retirement farm(s): Small farms whose operators report they are retired. The operators may have had either a farm or a nonfarm major occupation before retirement. However, they are still engaged enough in farming to produce at least $1,000 of farm products, the minimum for an establishment to be classified as a farm. For many of these producers, the status of retirement programs and the return on savings and investments are more important than the state of the agricultural economy.

Retrenchment: A reduction in an amount of money contained in a general appropriation bill. Under the Holman Rule in the House of Representatives, a germane provision in, or amendment to, such a bill is permitted if it changes existing law by reducing the amount of money covered by the bill.

RETRF: Rural Electrification and Telephone Revolving Fund

Return flow: (1) That part of a diverted flow that is not consumptively used and returned to its original source or another body of water. (2) Irrigation drainage water from irrigated farmlands that re-enters the water system to be used further downstream.

Return on investment (ROI): A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. To calculate ROI, the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio.

Revenue assurance (RA): A pilot revenue insurance plan, authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 195), designed to protect a producer from a loss of income resulting from low prices, low yields, or a combination of both, when harvest revenue falls below a guaranteed level. The current pilot program is available for a limited number of crops and states. See Crop revenue coverage (CRC), Group Revenue Insurance Policy (GRIP), and Income protection (IP).

Revenue assurance with harvest price option (RA-HPO; RA-HP): A form of crop insurance similar to crop revenue coverage with premium costs currently being the major difference. Using a yield guarantee and a revenue guarantee, if yields on a given unit fall below the yield guarantee level, under RA-HPO a loss payment is made at the higher of the base price or the harvest price. See Crop revenue coverage (CRC), Group Revenue Insurance Policy (GRIP), Income protection (IP), and Revenue Assurance (RA).

Revenue insurance: The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 195) required the creation of a pilot insurance program for wheat, feed grains, soybeans, and other crops of the USDA’s choosing for the crop years 1997-2000. Whereas crop insurance covers only yield losses, revenue insurance pays when gross revenue (yield times price) falls below a specified level. The Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 amended the Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980 to authorize livestock revenue insurance pilot programs to protect against the unexpected loss of revenue. General authority to extend insurance pilot programs until the 2004 crop year at the discretion of the Risk Management Agency was included. SeeCrop revenue coverage (CRC), Group Risk Insurance Policy (GRIP), Income protection (IP), Revenue assurance (RA), and Yield-based insurance coverage.

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE): A widely used model to predict soil loss on any field condition where soil erosion by water is possible. RUSLE can be expressed as follows: A = R K LS C P where A is the predicted average annual soil loss in tons per acre; R, rainfall- runoff erosivity factor; K, soil erodibility factor; L, slope length factor; S, slope steepness factor; C, cover-management factor; and P, support practice factor. See Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

Revolving line of credit (RLOC): On credit-line operating loans, providing to the producer/ borrower a credit line that can be outstanding at any one time. The borrower can borrow and repay as often as necessary, as long as the balance doesn’t exceed the credit limit. Typically, an RLOC is for up to three years, with a requirement that the loan be paid to a minimum balance annually. See Open-end operating loan.

Revolving loan program(s): See State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF).

Rework: Clean, unadulterated food that has been removed from processing for reasons other than insanitary conditions or that has been successfully reconditioned by reprocessing and is suitable for use as food. See Reprocessing.

RFID: Radio frequency identification

Rhizosphere: Soil surrounding plant roots that is influenced by the plant roots.

RHS: Rural Housing Service

Rice blast: See Blast.

Rice bran: The layer directly beneath the hull, containing outer bran layers and parts of the germ. Rich in protein and natural B-vitamins, bran is often used as cattle feed and in the manufacture of vitamin concentrates. Rice oil is extracted from the bran.

Rice classes: There are seven classes of milled rice. Four classes are based on the percentage of whole kernels and rice types (long grain rice, medium grain rice, short grain rice, and mixed rice) and three classes based on the percentage of whole kernels and of brokens of different sizes (second heads, screenings, and brewers rice).

Rice Millers’ Association (RMA): See USA Rice Federation.

Rice Production Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-214): Signed into law February 16, 1976. The Act directed the USDA to establish a national acreage allotment of 1.8 million acres for each of the 1976 and 1977 rice crops. It established the deficiency payment rate for the 1976 crop at $8 perhundredweight, adjusted for economic and agricultural factors, and established the 1977 price on the price paid in 1976, as adjusted. It further directed the USDA to make available price-support loans and purchases for the 1976 rice crop at a rate of $6 per hundredweight, as adjusted for economic and agricultural factors, to producers who cooperated with the rice acreage allotment. It based the 1977 price-support loans and purchases on the price paid in 1976, as adjusted. The Act set the payment limitation at $55,000 per person.

Rice program: The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 provided for fixed, but declining transition payments, nonrecourse marketing assistance loans with marketing loan provisions, and loan deficiency payments for the 1996-2002 rice crops. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Title I) amended the program to provide a system of direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, and nonrecourse loans with marketing loan provisions through 2007.

Rice types: Long grain, medium grain, and short grain. Rice types are based on the length and width ratio of kernels of rice that are unbroken, and the width, thickness, and shape of kernels of rice that are broken, as prescribed in Federal Grain Inspection Service instructions.

Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (RBRNSLA): See National School Lunch Act.

Rick compactor: A machine that allows a producer to dump his harvested cotton within three walls, right on the ground. The machine is attached to a farm tractor, and a compactor at the back presses the dumped cotton with enough force that it retains its compacted shape. This machine is dragged along the ground to create an empty space at the front end where additional cotton can be dumped. As the machine is pulled forward, the compactor at the back continually packs the loose cotton as it passes out of the back of the machine.

Rick(s): A compacted collection of cotton made by a rick compactor that could be made one hundred or more feet long. The desire to creates ricks of a standard size to ease transportation to the gin led to the creation of the cotton module. See Rick compactor.

Rider(s) (appropriations): Language in appropriations measures that changes existing law including establishing new law, or amending or repealing current law.

Ridge-till(age): The soil is left undisturbed from harvest to planting except for nutrient injection. Planting is completed in a seedbed prepared on ridges with sweeps, disk openers, coulters, or row cleaners. Residue is left on the surface between ridges. Weed control is accomplished with herbicides or cultivation. Ridges are rebuilt during cultivation.

Riding the pool: Techniques by which a handler whose major concern is the production of manufactured products can arrange his business so as to legally participate in the pool. A handler (or a cooperative) “rides the pool” by disposing of just enough of his milk supply to qualify as a pool plant. In this way, the handler is able to return the generally higher pool price to producers than if the handler simply engaged in a routine manufacturing business. It has advantages because the handler can use the poolto pay more for the milk than what the manufacturing milk class prices would indicate.

Right-hand side: For payment limitation purposes, the right-hand side of the significant contribution element of the actively engaged in farming requirement is the contribution of active personal labor, active personal management, or a combination thereof. See Left-hand side.

Right-to-farm law: A state law or local ordinance that protects producers and producer operations from public and private nuisance lawsuits. A private nuisance interferes with an individual’s use and enjoyment of his or her property. A public nuisance involves actions that injure the public at large.

Rill erosion: When rainwater moves fast enough to scour the land and removes soil such that small channels, or rills, remain. See Erosion.

Ring spinning: At textile mills, machines that draw cotton rope more thinly and finely, add twist, and wind onto bobbins.

Ringspot: Circular discoloration of leaves that is a symptom of viral disease.

Rinsate: Residue rinse water, recovered sedimentation, contaminated precipitation, or other contaminated debris that may be considered hazardous waste if containing any hazardous waste materials.

Riparian: Pertaining to or situated on or along the bank of a stream or other body of water.

Riparian (water) rights: The legal water rights of a person owning land containing or bordering on a water course or other body of water in or to its banks, bed, or waters. Water rights along enclosed bodies of water are known as littoral rights.

Riparian areas: Land that occurs along streams, channels, rivers, and other water bodies. They are normally distinctly different from the surrounding land because of unique soil and vegetation characteristics, may be identified by distinct vegetative communities which are reflective of soil conditions that are normally wetter than adjacent soils, and generally provide a corridor for the movement of wildlife.

Riparian buffer(s): Land next to streams, lakes, and wetlands that is managed for perennial vegetation (grass, shrubs, or trees) to enhance and protect aquatic resources from adverse impacts of agricultural practices. See Conservation buffer(s) strip(s).

Riparian forest buffer(s): Areas of trees, usually accompanied by shrubs and other vegetation, that are adjacent to a body of water and are managed to maintain the integrity of stream channels and shorelines; reduce the impact of upland sources of pollution by trapping, filtering, and converting sediments, nutrients, and other chemicals; and supply food, cover, and temperature protection to fish and other wildlife. See Conservation buffer(s) strip(s).

Riparian forests: Areas of forested land adjacent to a body of water, stream, river, marsh, or shoreline that form the transition between the aquatic and the terrestrial environment.

Riparian management zone(s): The natural buffer area between logging and forestry activities and waterways that helps to filter sediment and other pollutants before the runoff enters the main watercourse.

Risk analysis: The process of identifying hazards, evaluating the nature and severity of risks, and using that information to determine options and make decisions about reducing and eliminating risks.

Risk assessment: The process of identifying a hazard and estimating the risk presented by that hazard, in qualitative or quantitative terms. In human health risk assessments, this includes steps of hazard identification and risk characterization. Risk characterization integrates steps of exposure characterization and response characterization.

Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program (RAMP): Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Integrated Activities, integrated pest management program designed to support long-term efforts to develop reduced-risk pest management strategies for cropping systems oragroecosystems on a multi-state or regional scale. RAMP provides support for these projects as part of a national effort to eliminate or minimize pesticide residues of concern on foods, in drinking water, and in the environment. Priority consideration is given to projects that enhance stability and sustainability of agricultural production systems by developing and implementing pest management systems that maintain productivity and profitability while addressing environmental quality and human health concerns. See Crops at Risk (CAR), Methyl Bromide Transitions Program (MBT), and Organic Transitions (ORG).

Risk characterization: The process within risk assessment of estimating the probability of harm and the severity of impact of an identified hazard, including attendant uncertainty. Risk characterization integrates exposure and response of an identified hazard.

Risk communication: The open exchange of information and opinion leading to a better understanding of risk and risk-related decisions.

Risk cup: The amount of pesticide residue a person can be exposed to daily without affecting health. In addition to taking into account residues on foods, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires that the risk cup make room for residues found in drinking water and from exposure to uses in and around the home, such as on lawns and gardens, and on public spaces, such as parks, rights-of-way, and golf courses. Exposure from these multiple sources is combined as “aggregate” risk. When data pertaining to a pesticide’s effects on children’s health call for it, the Environmental Protection Agency also may apply up to an extra tenfold margin of safety. Furthermore, under a concept known as cumulative risk, if two or more pesticides can potentially affect human health in the same manner, the FQPA requires them to share a common risk cup.

Risk management: The process of forming and implementing a strategy for accepting or mitigating identified risks. It involves evaluating alternative policy options and selecting among them.

Risk Management Agency (RMA): The independent office created by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 194) to supervise the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, and administer all aspects of the programs established under the Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980, as amended, and pilot projects involving revenue insurance, risk management savings accounts, or the use of the futures market to manage risk and support farm income.

Risk management education (RME): The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 192) allowed the USDA to provide an educational program about risk management strategies, including options and futures trading and insurance protection programs, by assisting and training producers in the use of such programs. Education involving options and futures trading was to be offered in consultation with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. The USDA launched a Risk Management Education Initiative, jointly led by the Risk Management Agency; the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service; and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Additional funding for the RME initiative was provided in the Agricultral Risk Protection Act of 2000. See Agriculture Risk Management Education Competitive Grants Program (RME), and National Ag Risk Education Library.

Risk Management Education Initiative: See Risk management education (RME).

Risk of loss: For program purposes, interest in a commodity where the producer is responsible for loss or damage to the commodity. If the commodity is insured, any indemnity must be payable to the producer. See Beneficial interest.

Risk subsidy: The portion of the crop insurance premium paid by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation on behalf of the policyholders.

Risk-adjusted assets: For a credit institution, the total amount of cash and investments on hand, plus a calculated percentage of outstanding loans, cash in the process of being collected, accounts receivable, and commitments to lend.

Risk-benefit analysis: The process of estimating the short- and long-term societal benefits and risks involved in an activity, and then dividing the benefits by the risks to find a desirable quotient. In a risk-benefit analysis, the following steps can be considered: (a) evaluate the importance of the substance, program, or policy; (b) determine how large a segment of the population would be expected to benefit; and (c) decide if it is possible that the benefits outweigh the risks.

RLOC: Revolving line of credit

RMA: Rice Millers Association

RMA: Risk Management Agency

RME: Risk management education

RMP: Resource management plan

RNA: Ribonucleic acid

RNA (ribonucleic acid): A molecule similar to DNA that functions primarily to decode instructions for protein synthesis carried by genes.

ROA: Rate of return on assets

Roadside stand(s): Typically, a small, direct-marketing operation that sells farm-grown produce at or near the farm-site on a seasonal basis.

Rodenticides: Pesticides that control mice and other rodents.

ROE: Rate of return on equity

Rogue (plants): See Volunteer plant(s).

Roguing: The identification and removal of volunteer plants and other undesirable plants, especially when producing foundation seed, in order to keep the seed stock pure. Roll over (a hedge): Moving a hedge position from a nearby futures contract to a more distant one, either because the current contract is about to expire or the more distant futures contract offers better profit potential.

ROI: Return on investment

Roll over (a hedge): Moving a hedge position from a nearby futures contract to a more distant one, either because the current contract is about to expire or the more distant futures contract offers better profit potential.

Roll-Over Protection (ROPS): Safety bars attached to the cab of a farm tractor that protect the driver in the event of a roll-over.

Roller: An implement used to compact the soil to produce a firm seedbed.

Roller (type) gin(s): cotton gin with a rotating, rough leather roller that catches and pulls the fibers beneath a stationary blade closely adjacent to it. A reciprocating blade repetitively applies pressure against the seeds at the gap between roller and stationary blade to separate the lint and seed. This type of gin causes little fiber damage but is generally slow. See Gin(s)(ning)(ned), and Saw gin(s).

Roller mill: A machine used to grind wheat into flour and by-products. It consists of one or more pairs of cylindrical rolls arranged with their axis parallel and set in a heavy frame. Rolls may be corrugated (break rolls) or smooth (reduction rolls).

ROPS: Roll-over protection

Rot(s): Either fungal or bacterial infection causing discoloration, softening, and destruction of plant tissue.

Rotary barn: See Barn (milking).

Rotary hoe(s): A tool, pulled behind a tractor, designed to control weeds by dislodging weed seedlings from the soil at a very early stage of growth.

Rotation (timber): Period of years between establishment of a stand of timber and the time when it is considered ready for final harvest and regeneration. See Rotation(s).

Rotation(s): See Crop rotation(s), Pasture rotation, Rotational grazing, Rotational irrigation, Resource conserving crop rotation, and Short rotation woody crop (SRWC).

Rotational crossbreeding: A system of crossing two or more breeds where the crossbred females are bred to bulls of the breed contributing the least genes to the females’ genotype.

Rotational grazing: Heavy stocking of livestock followed by periods of no grazing to allow the pasture forage to recover. See Managed grazing.

Rotational irrigation: A system by which irrigators receive an allotted quantity of water, not at a continuous rate, but at stated intervals.

Rotor spinning: An “open end” cotton spinning system where fibers are reassembled and tied in by means of the rotating “open” end of the yarn.

Rough rice: (1) Dried rice as it comes from the farm without any portion of the stalk. The rice arrives by truck to the mill with debris (such as weed seeds, pebbles, and granules of dirt) that is removed before the milling process begins. (2) Rice that consists of 50 percent or more paddy kernels. Also Paddy rice.

Rough tree: trees of any size that do not contain at least one merchantable 12-foot saw log, now or prospectively, because of roughness or poor form.

Roughage: Feed (such as hay, straw, and silage) with high fiber content and low total digestible nutrients.

Round I Empowerment Zones (rural): Communities designated in 1994 that receive all of the benefits provided to the Round I Enterprise Communities, in addition to other benefits. States with designated Rural Empowerment Zones received grants of $40 million for each zone, or their proportional share of $40 million in a multi-state zone equal to the proportion of that zone’s residents living in the state. Employer wage credits were provided to qualified employers engaged in trade, business, health care, or human service delivery in designated zones. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Round I Enterprise Communities (rural): Communities designated in 1994 that received a number of benefits: (a) tax-exempt facilities bonds for certain private business activities, (b) grant funds of approximately $3 million for activities identified in their strategic plans, (c) and special consideration in competition for funding under numerous federal programs. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Round II Rural Empowerment Zones: Five communities designated in 1998 that received virtually all of the benefits provided to Round I Empowerment Zones with equal grant awards of $2 million. A major benefit for Round II Empowerment Zones that was not available to Round I Empowerment Zones or Enterprise Communities was the $60 million authorization per zone for issuing tax-exempt facilities bonds. The issuing authority is not subject to the overall cap on state issuances of federally tax-exempt private activity bonds. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Round III Empowerment Zones: Ten communities (nine new and one re-engineered) designated in 2001 as authorized by the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000. The Act did not authorize grant funds as had been available to the previous Empowerment Zones andEnterprise Communities, but did make available a package of tax benefits (including tax-exempt facilities bonds) similar to Round II Empowerment Zones. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Round IIS Rural Enterprise Communities: Twenty communities designated in 1998 that received grants of $250,000 each. The authorizing legislation provides that none of the tax benefits in effect for all other rural Empowerment Zones or Enterprise Communities accrue to Round IISRural Enterprise Communities. Targeted federal financial assistance specific to Enterprise Community status is limited to the newly authorized USDA EZ/EC grants. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Round lot: A quantity of a commodity equal in size to the corresponding futures contract for the commodity; distinguished from a job lot, which may be larger or smaller than the contract.

Round(s): See GATT Round(s).

Roundup Ready (gene): See Roundup Ready cotton, and Roundup Ready soybeans.

Roundup Ready cotton: variety of transgenic cotton containing the gene that imparts resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, or Roundup(r).

Roundup Ready soybeans: Soybeans engineered by Monsanto Corporation to contain a bacterial gene that confers tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate, or Roundup(r), also made by Monsanto.

Roundwood: A length of cut tree, such as a log (eight-foot or longer tree segment) or bolt (short log), generally having a round cross-section.

Route disposition: Delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet (except a plant) either directly or through any distribution facility of a fluid milk product in consumer-type packages or dispenser units.

Row crop(s): Crops that require planting each year and are grown in rows, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, and grain sorghum.

Row crops: Crops that require planting each year and are grown in rows, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, and grain sorghum.

Row dividers: The large points on the end of a combine used to pick up corn.

RPA: Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974

RPAR: Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration

RREA: Renewable Resources Extension Act (of 1978)

RSA: Research Support Agreement

RTB: Rural Telephone Bank

Rumen: A compartment of the ruminant stomach, similar to a large fermentation pouch, where bacteria and protozoa break down fibrous plant material swallowed by the animal. Sometimes referred to as the paunch.

Ruminant(s): Animals having a stomach with four compartments (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum). Their digestive process is more complex than that of animals having a true stomach. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, and goats, as well as deer, bison, buffalo, camels, and giraffes.

Runoff: See Agricultural runoff.

Rural: (1) An area that has a population of fewer than 2,500 inhabitants and is outside an urban area. A rural area does not apply only to farm residences or to sparsely settled areas, since a small town is rural as long as it meets the above criteria. (2) Areas outside urban populations (population of greater than 2,500) or an urbanized area. Urbanized areas are defined by the existence of one or more central places and the adjacent fringe area that have a total population of at least 50,000. (3) In the U.S., the non-urban area comprised of 2,305 counties, 83 percent of the nation’s land, and 20 percent (55 million) of its people. See Rural area(s).

Rural Abandoned Mine Program (RAMP): program, authorized by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Sec. 406) and amended by the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Act of 1991, that is administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and funded by a portion of coal assessments collected by the Office of Surface Mining. RAMP provides for reclamation of old abandoned surface mine sites and the re-establishing of vegetative cover. Eligible landowners must contract with the NRCS to maintain the site once reclaimed. The sites must be less than 120 acres in size and landowners must enter into five- to ten-year contracts. The project must meet the priority rating standard that gives the highest priority to safety hazards and sites that impact water quality.

Rural area(s): (1)Any area of the U.S. not included within the boundaries of an urban area and fringe area, as defined by the Bureau of Census; includes both farm and nonfarm populations. (2) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6020), for Business and Industry loans, Rural Business Enterprise grants, and Rural Business Opportunity grants, any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, including an urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town. (3) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6020), for Water and Waste Disposal grants, direct Water and Waste Disposal loans, and guaranteed Water and Waste Disposal loans, a city, town, or unincorporated area that has a population of no more than 10,000 inhabitants. (4) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6020), for Community Facility Programs (grants, direct and guaranteed loans, extreme unemployment grants, and out-migration grants), a city, town, or unincorporated area that has a population of no more than 20,000 inhabitants.

Rural bank(s): Those banks with headquarter offices in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties. See Agricultural bank(s).

Rural broadband access: See Rural Broadband Loan and Loan Guarantee Program.

Rural Broadband Loan and Loan Guarantee Program: As authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6103), a new Rural Utilities Service grants, loans and loan guarantees program available to provide broadband telecommunications services in rural areas. These funds will facilitate deployment of new and innovative technologies to provide two-way data transmission of 200 kbps or more through the construction, improvement, and purchase of equipment and facilities for rural broadband service in communities with populations of no more than 20,000 inhabitants.

Rural Business and Industry loans: See Business and Industry loan program (B&I).

Rural business concern: Under the Rural Business Investment Program, a public, private, or cooperative for-profit or nonprofit organization; a for-profit or nonprofit business controlled by an Indian tribe on a federal or state reservation, or other federally recognized Indian tribal group; or any other person or entity that primarily operates in a rural area, as determined by the USDA.

Rural Business Enterprise grants (RBEG): Rural Business-Cooperative Service grants made to public bodies, nonprofit corporations, and federally recognized Indian tribal groups to finance and facilitate development of small and emerging business enterprises, or the creation, expansion, and operation of rural distance learning networks or programs that provide educational instruction or job training related to potential employment or job advancement for adult students. Grants are available for rural areas or cities of up to 50,000 people, with priority given to applications for projects in open country; rural communities of 25,000 or less; and economically distressed communities. The program includes grants made to third-party lenders to establish revolving loan programs.

Rural Business Investment Program: A new program authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6029) to guarantee funds raised by companies that make equity investments in rural businesses, with an emphasis on smaller businesses. Grants are also authorized to pay for operational assistance to participating businesses.

Rural Business Opportunity grants (RBOG): Rural Business-Cooperative Service grants, not to exceed $1.5 million annually, provided to public bodies and private nonprofit community development corporations to identify local rural business opportunities; provide technical assistance torural entrepreneurs; establish business support centers; conduct economic development and planning, and leadership development; and establish training, technology, and trade centers that will utilize interactive technology. Authority for the grants was extended through FY2007 in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6003).

Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS): One of the three Rural Development agencies, and the successor to many former Farmers Home Administration, Rural Development Administration, and Rural Electrification Administration programs. Its mission is to enhance the quality of life forrural citizens by assisting new and existing cooperatives and other businesses through funding partnerships that leverage public, private, and cooperative resources to stimulate rural economic activity. See Rural Development (USDA).

Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP): An experimental program, administered by the Farm Service Agency, to provide financial and technical assistance to farmers and ranchers for the installation of approved measures that reduce or control agricultural nonpoint source pollution. The maximum cost-share assistance was capped at 75 percent (unless waived by the Administrator), and individual producers could receive no more than $50,000 over the life of the contract. The implementation period for all approved projects has ended, and the USDA did not expect payments on any further obligations following 1999.

Rural Community Advancement Program (RCAP): As authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 761), 14 existing housing and rural development programs were consolidated and streamlined with more authority given to the various state directors. The RCAP provides grants, direct and guaranteed loans, and other assistance to meet rural development needs across the country. Funding through the Rural Development Trust Fund includes rural community facilities, rural utilities, rural business and cooperative development, and federally recognized Indian tribal group programs. The program was reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6026). See Community facilities, Rural Business Enterprise grants (RBEG), Rural Business Opportunity grants (RBOG), and Rural utilities programs.

Rural Community Assistance programs: Forest Service programs under the Economic Action Programs initiative that help rural communities build skills, networks, and strategies to address social, environmental, and economic changes. These programs emphasize helping communities organize, develop broad-based local action plans, and take actions which build towards sustainable solutions for economic, social, and environmental concerns and opportunities. These community-level efforts are accomplished with the majority of the coordination and technical assistance being provided by employees located on National Forests working with thousands of partners nationwide, and with direct interaction by state foresters and other appropriate agencies.

Rural community(ies): (1) Any town, township, municipality, or other similar unit of general purpose local government having a population of not more than 10,000 individuals or any county or similar unit of general-purpose local government having a population of not more than 22,500 individuals. (2) Under 7 U.S.C. § 6612, any town, township, municipality, or other similar unit of general-purpose local government, or any area represented by a not-for-profit corporation or institution organized under state or federal law to promote broad-based economic development, or unit of general-purpose local government, as approved by the USDA, that has a population of not more than 10,000 individuals, is located within a county in which at least 15 percent of the total primary and secondary labor and proprietor income is derived from forestry, wood products, and forest-related industries such as recreation, forage production, and tourism, and that is located within the boundary, or within 100 miles of the boundary, of a national forest. See National Forest-dependent rural community(ies).

Rural Cooperative Development grants: Rural Business-Cooperative Service grants to fund the establishment and operation of centers for rural cooperative development, with the primary purpose of the improvement of economic conditions in rural areas. Grants may be made to nonprofit institutions or institutions of higher education.

Rural development: Under 7 U.S.C. § 2666, the planning, financing, and development of facilities and services in rural areas that contribute to making those areas desirable places in which to live and make private and business investments; the planning, development, and expansion of business and industry in rural areas to provide increased employment and income; the planning, development, conservation, and use of land, water, and other natural resources of rural areas to maintain or improve the quality of the environment for people and business in rural areas; and the building or improvement of institutional, organizational, and leadership capacities of rural citizens and leaders to define and resolve their own community problems.

Rural Development (USDA): Following the abolition of the Farmers Home Administration, the Rural Development Administration, and the Rural Electrification Administration in the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994, the programs of these former agencies were consolidated under the new Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Rural Housing Service, and Rural Utilities Service agencies and placed in the Rural development mission area under the direction and oversight of the Under Secretary forRural development. The mission of Rural development is to provide financial and technical assistance to improve the quality of life in rural America, and to help individuals and businesses compete in the global marketplace. The programs administered include a variety of loan, loan guarantee, and grant programs; technical assistance for businesses and communities; economic and community development in rural areas; rural housing; community facilities; water and waste disposal; electrification; and telecommunications. See Community Facility Program, Office of Community Development (OCD), Rural Economic Development loans and grants, Rural housing loans and grants (RHS), Rural utilities programs, Telecommunications program, Water and Waste Disposal grant(s), Water and Waste Disposal loan(s) (direct), Water and Waste Disposal loan(s) (guaranteed), and Water and Waste Technical Assistance and Training grant(s).

Rural Development Administration (RDA): A former USDA agency whose programs were absorbed after the USDA reorganization into the Rural Utilities Service, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, and Rural Housing Service.

Rural Development Centers: Smith-Lever 3(d) program that provides funds to four regional centers (Pennsylvania, Mississippi, Oregon, and Iowa) designed to improve the social and economic well-being of rural communities in their respective regions. See Smith-Lever 3(d) (funds).

Rural Development Insurance Fund (RDIF): A revolving fund for the discharge of the obligations of the USDA under contracts guaranteeing or insuring rural development loans, including loans for water systems and waste disposal facilities.

Rural Development Programs: The title in the agricultural appropriations bill that includes the Office of Under Secretary for Rural Development, the Rural Community Advancement Program, the Rural Housing Service Programs, the Rural Housing Service, the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, and the Rural Utilities Service accounts.

Rural Development Through Forestry (RDTF): Forest Service program to help rural areas analyze and assess forest resource opportunities, maximize local economic potential through market development and expansion, and diversify the economic base. The RTDF focuses on the sustainable use of forest resources to increase the economic benefits to rural resource owners and communities.

Rural Development/Intermediary Relending Program: See Intermediary Relending Program.

Rural Economic and Community Development (RECD): See Rural Development (USDA).

Rural Economic and Community Development Programs: The former agricultural appropriations title now known as Rural Development Programs.

Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP) (zones) (initiative): A pilot initiative, coordinated by the USDA Office of Community Development, to address critical issues in rural communities related to constraints in economic activity and growth, low-density settlement patterns, stagnant or declining employment, and isolation that has led to disconnection from markets, suppliers, and centers of information and finance. The pilot project sets up a collaborative and citizen-led effort to enhance economic development in the REAP zones through assisting communities to develop cooperative strategies to enhance community infrastructure and function, assisting families impacted by poor economic conditions, and providing financial and technical assistance to implement citizen-led strategic planning.

Rural Economic Development Act of 1990: The rural development title, Title XXIII, of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.

Rural Economic Development loans and grants: Grants may be made to Rural Utilities Service (RUS) borrowers for the purpose of establishing revolving loan fund programs to promote economic development in rural areas. Zero-interest loans are also available to RUS borrowers who relend the funds at zero-interest to rural businesses.

Rural Electric Cooperative distribution system: Rural electric cooperatives generate (G&T) and purchase wholesale power, arrange for the transmission of that power, and then distribute the power (distribution cooperative) to serve the demand of rural customers. Rural electric cooperatives typically become involved in ancillary services such as energy conservation, load management (shifting of electric energy demand during a utility’s peak generating periods to off-peak periods), and other demand-side management programs(managing electric demand with programs that help customers use energy more efficiently) in order to serve their customers at the least cost.

Rural Electric Cooperative(s) (REC): A consumer-owned utility established to provide electric service in the rural parts of the U.S. Rural Electric Cooperatives are incorporated under the laws of the 46 states in which they operate. There are 874 distribution cooperatives and 60generation and transmission cooperatives in the U.S. that provide electric service to some 30 million people. See Statewides.

Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S. Code, Chapter 31, §§ 901-950b): Signed into law May 20, 1936, and amended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6101). The Act provided the statutory provision for the Rural Electrification Administration formed by Executive Order 7307 in 1935.

Rural Electrification Administration (REA): Formed by Executive Order 7037 of May 11, 1935. Created primarily to electrify the underdeveloped rural areas by providing subsidized loans and grants to rural electric cooperatives. The duties and programs of the REA (including administering certain electric and telephone loan programs) are now performed by the Rural Utilities Service.

Rural electronic commerce extension program: program authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6202) to expand and enhance e-commerce practices and technology to be used by rural small businesses and enterprises to increase the skills and abilities of small business owners to link business plans to critical electronic communications tools that can increase their efficiency and effectiveness; increase networks and communication among business, providers and educators; increase local and regional initiatives; and enhance economic diversity.

Rural Empowerment Zone: See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Rural Enterprise Community: See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Rural Enterprise Development grants: See Rural Business Enterprise grants (RBEG).

Rural Firefighters and Emergency Personnel grants (program): Rural Housing Service grants authorized under 7 U.S.C. § 2655 to local governments and Indian tribes to pay the cost of training firefighters and emergency personnel in firefighting, emergency medical practices, and responding to hazardous materials and bioagents in rural areas. The program was reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6405) through FY2007.

Rural Health and Safety Education: Authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Sec. 2390), this Extension program helps rural residents avoid or minimize agricultural work accidents. Program funds are equally distributed to all fifty states and Puerto Rico.

Rural housing grants: See Rural housing loans and grants (RHS).

Rural housing loans (Farm Credit System): Housing loans provided by Farm Credit Banks for single-family, moderately priced dwellings and their appurtenances, not inconsistent with the general quality and standards of housing existing in or planned or recommended for the rural area where it is located. For rural housing purposes, the term rural areas does not include any city or village having a population in excess of 2,500 inhabitants.

Rural housing loans (Rural Housing Service): See Rural housing loans and grants (RHS).

Rural housing loans and grants (RHS): Commonly known as Section 504 loans and grants, a Rural Housing Service program to provide financial assistance to very-low-income rural homeowners to remove health and safety hazards from their homes. These grants are only available to elderly homeowners.

Rural Housing Service (RHS): One of the three Rural Development agencies. Provides direct loans to creditworthy rural residents who would otherwise be unable to obtain financing for a family home, guarantees loans made by commercial lenders for rural housing, and makes direct loans and grants to low-income rural residents to finance removal of health and safety hazards from their homes. The agency finances multifamily housing for low-income rural residents.

Rural Housing Site loans: Financing provided by the Rural Housing Service for the purchase and development of affordable housing sites in rural areas for low- and moderate-income families. Loans are made to acquire and develop sites for housing to be constructed by the self-help method, or for site development to build a home for any low- or moderate-income family. Eligible organizations include nonprofit organizations, public bodies, and federally recognized Indian groups.

Rural rental housing loans: Commonly known as Section 515 loans, direct loans to limited profit and nonprofit developers to build rental housing for low-income and very-low-income rural tenants. Subsidized loans of one percent for up to 50 years are provided to developers to enable them to offer below-market affordable rents to qualified tenants. For new Section 515 projects, 95 percent of tenants must have very low incomes. In existing projects, 75 percent of new tenants must have very low incomes.

Rural residence: Farmsteads that gross less than $10,000 a year. Also Hobby farm(s).

Rural Strategic Investment Program: As authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6030), a program to provide rural communities with flexible resources to develop comprehensive, collaborative, and locally based planning processes and to implement innovative community and economic development strategies. The program provides funding for infrastructure needs, basic services, economic diversification, human resource capacity, access to financing and capital, and development of public-private collaborations. Nonmetropolitan counties with a population of 50,000 or less are eligible, except that existing rural empowerment zones or enterprise communities are not eligible.

Rural Telephone Bank (RTB): Authorized by the Rural Electrification Act of 1936. A public-private partnership that provides capital for furnishing and improving rural telecommunications systems. The RTB is managed by a 13-member board of directors, and its activities are carried out by employees of the Rural Utilities Service. In FY1996, the RTB was required to begin privatization through the repurchase of federally owned stock. It was determined that RTB borrowers were able to borrow at private market rates and no longer needed government subsidy assistance.

Rural Telephone Bank loan program: Commercial or nonprofit corporations that are providing or propose to provide basic local exchange telecommunications service to rural areas may borrow from the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and the Rural Telephone Bank to finance the improvement, expansion, construction, or acquisition of telecommunications facilities. Cost-of-money loans are made concurrently with Rural Telephone Bank loans (a borrower will receive financing in part from both the RUS cost-of-money loan program and the Rural Telephone Bank program). Borrowers must meet subscriber density requirements, and loans must be repaid within a period that approximates the expected useful life of the facilities financed, not to exceed 35 years. Telecommunications service must be provided to the largest practical number of rural subscribers, and facilities being financed must not duplicate existing facilities of another telecommunications company. Rural areas are defined by RUS as any area that does not include a city with a population greater than 5,000.

Rural telework: See Telework.

Rural utilities programs: The USDA provides assistance to rural communities to ensure access to affordable and essential utilities: water, waste, electricity, and telecommunications services. One key program goal was to have running water for all homes in rural areasby the year 2000. The mission in this area is to assist rural electric and telecommunications utilities in obtaining financing to provide affordable and reliable electric and telecommunications service in rural areas. The USDA also assists rural communities in obtaining water and waste disposal services. Financial assistance includes loans and grants, guarantees of loans made by others, approval of loan security arrangements (which permit borrowers to obtain financing without a guarantee), grants for technical assistance, emergency water system repair or replacement, and a contracted technical assistance program.

Rural Utilities Service (RUS): Following reorganization, the successor to the Rural Electrification Administration and the Rural Telephone Bank. The RUS now includes water and sewer programs of the former Farmers Home Administration. The mission of the RUS is to serve a leading role in improving the quality of life in rural America by administering its electric, telecommunications, and water and waste programs. RUS provides planning, financing, and services.

Rural Venture Capital Demonstration Program: program authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 761) to provide a guarantee for projects that served as a catalyst to attract private investments in businesses in rural areas. The amount of the guarantee could not exceed 30 percent of any pool of funds provided by up to 10 community development venture capital organizations. The program was repealed by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6026(b)).

Rural Water and Wastewater Circuit Rider Program: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6005), the USDA is to establish a rural water and wastewater circuit rider program to be based on the Rural Water Circuit Rider Program.

Rural Water Circuit Rider (Technical Assistance) Program: The USDA uses the services of an intermediary to provide technical assistance to rural water systems. Circuit riders assist rural water systems with day-to-day operational, financial, and management problems. There are 52 circuit riders that cover the 48 continental United States. Their assistance may be requested by rural water systems or by the USDA. When circuit riders are not working on specific requests, they call on rural water systems to offer assistance.

Rural water use: Water used in suburban or farm areas for domestic and livestock needs. The water generally is self-supplied, and includes domestic use, drinking water for livestock, and other uses, such as dairy sanitation, cleaning, and waste disposal.

Rural youth loans: Direct loans available from the Farm Service Agency with a maximum loan amount of $5,000. Rural youth loans may be made to individuals who are sponsored by a project advisor such as a 4-H club, FFA, or local vocational instructor. Individuals must be at least ten years old, but not more than twenty years old, to be eligible. Also Youth project loans.

RUS: Rural Utilities Service

RUSLE: Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation

Russian wheat aphid: A serious insect threat to small grains. The aphids cause longitudinal leaf rolling and white or purple streaking on the leaves. The damage is caused by injection of a toxin into the plants as it feeds. The toxin prevents the production of chlorophyll, causes leaves to curl, and eventually prevents proper grain maturation.

Rust(s): A fungal disease of plants (principally grains, cotton, soybeans, vegetables, pine, and apple trees) causing blistering of leaves and stems, resulting in reduced foliage, poor root growth, and lower yields because of reduced photosynthesis. Rusts also reduce quality of crops, such as grains, by eliminating the production of starch. Rusts are among the most destructive of all plant diseases, and are estimated to cause losses of approximately 10 percent of all world grain production. Common rusts are the stem rust, blister rust, cedar-apple rust, puccinia rust, and fusiform rust.

Rye; grain that is tolerant of poor soils, high latitudes, and high altitudes. It is mainly used in making bread, whisky, and beer. When fed to livestock, it is generally mixed with other grains.