Jack: A male donkey.

Jackson-Vanik (Amendment) (19 U.S.C. § 2432): Section 402 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, that sets a policy of free emigration as a condition and key element of the restoration3 of certain specific economic benefits to a nonmarket economy country. These benefits include nondiscriminatory (MFN) tariff status in trade with the U.S., access to U.S. government financial facilities (export credits, export credit guarantees, and investment guarantees), and the ability to conclude a bilateral trade agreement with the U.S. Leachability: The ability of a chemical to be carried through the soil profile while in solution.

Japanese beetle: A highly destructive exotic insect that has become a serious plant pest and a threat to American agriculture. Unlike in its native Japan, in the U.S. the beetle has no real natural enemies. Both the adults and grubs are destructive. The adults feed on the foliage and fruits of several hundred species of fruit trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and field and vegetable crops. The grubs feed on the roots of various plants and grasses and often destroy turfgrass in lawns, parks, golf courses, and pastures.

Jenny: A female donkey.

Job lot: See Round lot.

Job’s tears: A tear-shaped cereal grain high in carbohydrates, potassium, protein, and fiber, and low in fat. It has limited availability outside of Asia. Various species may be prepared like rice, ground like wheat, or used as beads for jewelry.

John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program (FTF): First authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 as a pilot project funded through P.L. 480 to provide technical assistance to farmers in Central America and the Caribbean. The program provides voluntary technical assistance on a people-to-people basis to farmers, farm groups, and agribusiness to enhance the potential for substantial increases in food processing, production, and marketing, which, in turn, stimulate private enterprise, agricultural cooperatives, and associations. In 1986, the program was expanded for worldwide operation. The program (Title V of P.L. 480) was reauthorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3014) and is managed by the U.S. Agency for International DevelopmentOffice of Private and Voluntary Cooperation. The Act also increased the share of P.L. 480 Title I and Title II funds that can be diverted to support the program to 0.5 percent. In 1991, a special initiative of the FTF program was established as one of the first U.S. assistance programs for the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, and the program continues to operate in the twelve NIS countries. The program is referred to as the NIS-FTF Program. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 authorized special emphasis on Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries. John Ogonowski was the pilot on American Airlines Flight 11 that crashed into the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001. He is remembered for his generous efforts on behalf of farming in Massachusetts, and particularly for immigrant farmers from Cambodia whom he assisted as part of the New Entry Sustainable Farming Project (NESFP).

Johne’s disease: A contagious bacterial disease of cattle, sheep, and goats. It is a wasting disease causing weight loss and the loss of milk production.

Joint (farming) operation; joint venture: A farming operation in which two or more producers work together sharing, equally or unequally, land, labor, equipment, expenses, and income.

Jones Act (Merchant Marine Act of 1920) (P.L. 66-261) (46 U.S.C. Appendix): The Act requires that all goods shipped between the east and west coasts, the Great Lakes, and the noncontiguous states and territories must be carried on vessels built and flagged in the U.S., crewed by Americans, and owned and operated by Americans.

Justin Smith Morrill Memorial Lecture: Awarded every three years by National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges in honor of Justin Smith Morrill, the U.S. Senator primarily responsible for enactment of the legislation establishing the land grant university system for teaching agriculture and the mechanical arts. The Justin Smith Morrill Memorial Lecture is awarded to honor outstanding contemporary leadership in teaching and significant contributions as an educator in promoting the liberal and practical education of all citizens.