E Government Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-347): An act to enhance the management and promotion of electronic government services and processes by establishing a federal Chief Information Officer within the Office of Management and Budget and by establishing a broad framework of measures that require using internet-based information technology to enhance citizen access to government information and services. See Customer Statement and Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA).

E Government Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-347):m Signed into law December 17, 2002. An Act to enhance the management and promotion of electronic government services and processes by establishing a federal Chief Information Officer within the Office of Management and Budget, and by establishing a broad framework of measures that require using internet-based information technology to enhance citizen access to government information and services. See Customer Statement and Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA).

E Government Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-347): Signed into law December 17, 2002. An Act to enhance the management and promotion of electronic government services and processes by establishing a federal Chief Information Officer within the Office of Management and Budget, and by establishing a broad framework of measures that require using internet-based information technology to enhance citizen access to government information and services. See Customer Statement and Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA).

E Government; egovernment; eGovernment; e-government: See Electronic government.

E-commerce: The sale of products, exchange of information, transfer of funds, or delivery of goods electronically. Typically, business-to-business communications use electronic data interchange (EDI) over private networks or the world wide web, while business to consumer transactions use the world wide web. See Rural electronic commerce extension program.

E. coli; E. coli 0157:H7: A rare strain Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 is a toxin-producing bacteria, living in the intestines of animals, that can contaminate food during the slaughter process. If ingested by humans, E. coli 0157:H7 can cause severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, kidney damage, and even death. E. coli O157:H7 is easily destroyed by thorough cooking. See Foodborne illness(es).

E10: A mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% unleaded gasoline. Also Gasohol.

E85: A mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% unleaded gasolines.

EA: Environmental assessment

Ear marks: See Ear notching.

Ear notching: A notch or series of notches made in the ear as a means of identification.

Ear tag: Method of animal identification by which a numbered, lettered, or colored tag is placed in the ear.

Ear tag(s): Method of animal identification by which a numbered, lettered, and/or colored tag is placed in the ear.

Ear tag(s): Method of animal identification by which a numbered, lettered, and/or colored tag is placed in the ear.

Ear tag(s): Method of animal identification by which a numbered, lettered, and/or colored tag is placed in the ear.

Early soil: Soil that is well drained, warms quickly in the spring, and is suitable for early planting.

Earmark(s): (1) The setting aside of funds for a specific purpose, use, or recipient. (2) Commonly used to describe funds set aside for such purposes as research projects, demonstration projects, parks, laboratories, academic grants, and contracts in a particular Congressional district or state or for certain specified universities or other organizations.

Earmarked funds: See Smith-Lever 3(d) funds.

Earmarked grant(s): See Special research grant(s).

Easement(s) (conservation): See Conservation easement(s).

EBC: Equivalent bushel concept

EBI: Environmental Benefits Index

EBV: Estimated breeding value

EC: Emulsifiable concentrates

EC: Enterprise Community

EC: Enterprise Community

EC: European Community

EC: European Community

ECARP: Environmental Conservation Acreage Reserve Program

Ecological farming: See Biological farming.

econdary market: An organized market in which existing financial assets are bought and sold. Examples are the New York Stock Exchange, bond markets, over-the-counter markets, and the more recently formed secondary market for buying and selling farm mortgage loans and guaranteed Farm Service Agency loans (called Farmer Mac). See Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac).

Economic Action Programs: Forest Service programs that help rural communities and businesses dependent on forest-based resources become sustainable and self-sufficient. These programs include the Rural Community Assistance programs, the Forest Products Conservation and Recycling program, and the Market Development and Expansion program.

Economic Research Service (ERS): The USDA agency responsible for economic data and analyses and social science information needed to develop, administer, and evaluate food and agricultural policy and programs, as well as some other rural policies and programs. The ERS is divided into six divisions: commercial agriculture, food and consumer economics, information services, natural resources and environment, energy and new uses, and rural economy.

Economic union: Occurs when countries agree to coordinate economic policies such as interest rates, stable exchange rates, common policies on inflation, and ultimately a single currency. Additional policy coordination may be sought in coordinated education, workforce training, unemployment benefits, pensions, health care, and other services.

Economies (diseconomies) of scale (size): The reduction in per-unit cost of production associated with an increase in optimal size of operation usually resulting from specialization, division of labor, and technology. Diseconomies involve an increase in per-unit cost of production associated with nonoptimal growth in size resulting from inadequate management or other factors.

ECOP: Extension Committee on Organization and Policy (NASULGC)

Ecosystem(s): Generally, any complex of living organisms interwoven with their environment.

ECP: Emergency Conservation Program

ection 515: See Rural rental housing loans.

Edema: See Stocking up.

Edible molasses: Molasses that is not to be further refined or improved in quality, and that is to be distributed, either directly or in molasses-containing products, for human consumption.

Edible offal(s): Those edible parts or organs of animals, other than fats, that are usually separated in the course of the preparation of the carcasses at slaughterhouses.

Edible oils: Vegetable oils, including olive oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil (sun oil), peanut oil, sesame oil, and animal shortenings.

Edward R. Madigan Agricultural Export Excellence Award: A USDA award to recognize those who have substantially encouraged entrepreneurial efforts in the food and agricultural sector for advancing U.S. agricultural exports.

EE: Environmental evaluation

EEP: Export Enhancement Program

EEP: Environmental Easement Program

EEP: Environmental Easement Program

EFAP: Emergency Feed Assistance Program

Effective (farm marketing) quota: For each quota-holding producer of tobacco, the adjustment of the national basic quota, with previous undermarketings and overmarketings, to establish the amount each grower may market without penalty.

Effective financing statement: Under 7 U.S.C. §§ 1631, a statement that (a) is an original or reproduced copy of the statement, or in the case of a state that allows the electronic filing of financing statements without the signature of the debtor, is an electronically reproduced copy of the statement; (b) other than in the case of an electronically reproduced copy of the statement, is signed, authorized, or otherwise authenticated by the debtor, and filed with the Secretary of State of a state by the secured party; (c) contains the name and address of the secured party, the name and address of the person indebted to the secured party; the social security number of the debtor, or in the case of a debtor doing business other than as an individual, the Internal Revenue Service taxpayer identification number of such debtor; and a description of the farm products subject to the security interest created by the debtor, including the amount of such products where applicable, and the name of each county or parish in which the farm products are produced or located.

Effective interest rate: The calculated interest rate that may take into account stock, fees, and compounding; in contrast to a quoted rate of interest.

Effective loan rate: See Announced loan rate.

Effective neutralizing material: A measure of the effectiveness of agricultural limestone. The effectiveness of the limestone will vary depending on the fineness of the grind and the purity of the product.

Effective price: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1104), for purposes of calculating counter-cyclical payments, the higher of the national average market price during the marketing year for a covered commodity or the national average loan rate for a marketing assistance loan for that covered commodity and peanuts.

Effluent: (1) Raw, partially, or completely treated water or some other liquid flowing from a reservoir, basin, treatment plant, or industrial process. (2) Discharged wastewater such as the treated wastes from municipal sewage plants, brine wastewaterfrom desalting operations, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant. (3) Treated or untreated liquid waste material that is discharged into the environment from a point source. (4) The liquid or gas discharge of waste material residues from aprocess. Usually refers to discharge from industrial processes or from sewage treatment plants.

Effluent: (1) Raw, partially, or completely treated water or some other liquid flowing from a reservoir, basin, treatment plant, or industrial process. (2) Discharged wastewater such as the treated wastes from municipal sewage plants, brine wastewaterfrom desalting operations, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant. (3) Treated or untreated liquid waste material that is discharged into the environment from a point source.

Effluent: (1) Raw, partially, or completely treated water or some other liquid flowing from a reservoir, basin, treatment plant, or industrial process. (2) Discharged wastewater such as the treated wastes from municipal sewage plants, brine wastewaterfrom desalting operations, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant. (3) Treated or untreated liquid waste material that is discharged into the environment from a point source. (4) The liquid or gas discharge of waste material residues from aprocess. Usually refers to discharge from industrial processes or from sewage treatment plants.

Effluent limitations guideline (ELG): Federal and state guidelines on the restrictions on quantities, rates, and concentrations of chemical, physical, biological, and other constituents that are discharged from point sources into surface waters.

EFGDP: Emergency Feed Grain Donation Program

EFNEP: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

EFP: Emergency Feed Program

Egg products: Eggs that have been removed from their shells for processing. The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. This is done at official plants. Basic egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks, and various blends, with or without non-egg ingredients, that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen, and dried forms. Whole eggs, whites, yolks, and variousblends, with or without non-egg ingredients, are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Freeze-dried products, imitation egg products, and egg substitutes are the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration.

Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (P. L. 91-597) (21 U.S.C. §§ 1031 et seq.): Signed into law Dec. 29, 1970. The Act provides for the mandatory continuous inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products. From 1970 until 1995, the Poultry Division of the Agricultural Marketing Service inspected egg products to ensure they were wholesome, otherwise not adulterated, and properly labeled and packaged to protect the health and welfare of consumers. On May 28, 1995, the Food Safety and Inspection Service became responsible for theinspection of egg products when elements of various USDA agencies were combined into one food safety agency. FSIS inspects all egg products, with the exception of those products exempted under the Act, that are used by food manufacturers, food service, institutions, and retail markets. The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for the inspection of egg substitutes, imitation eggs, and similar products that are exempted from continuous inspection under theEPIA.

Egg Safety Action Plan: An initiative to cut in half by 2005 the number of salmonella enterititis (SE) illnesses attributed to eggs. The plan asks that all egg producers practice good sanitation, test eggs for SE, and divert infected eggs away from consumers. It also asks that during processing and packing, eggs receive treatments to eliminate SE.

Egg size(s): Shell eggs are divided by size (class) according to weight. The minimum net weight per dozen for each class: (a) Jumbo – 30 ounces; (b) Extra Large – 27 ounces; (c) Large – 24 ounces; (d) Medium – 21 ounces; and (e) Small – 18 ounces.

EI: Erodibility (Erosion) Index

EIA: Equine infectious anemia

EID: Electronic identification

Einkorn: covered wheat of Near Eastern origin. Einkorn is a high-protein crop that grows optimally in cooler, lower-moisture environments.

EIP: Export Incentive Program

EIRP: Extension Indian Reservation Program

EIS: Environmental impact statement

Elastic demand: A market in which a small percentage change in price will bring about a greater proportional change in the amount purchased. Changes in the quantity demanded are relatively responsive to changes in the demand price. See Inelastic demand.

Elastic supply: Changes in the quantity supplied are relatively responsive to changes in the supply price. A relatively small change in supply price causes a relatively larger change in the quantity supplied. See Inelastic supply.

Elastic; elasticity: (1) An economic concept that relates the percentage change in one variable, such as price, to the percentage change in another variable, such as quantity. (2) The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf that allows it to recover approximately its original size and shape after it has been stretched.

eLDP: Electronic loan deficiency payment

Electric programs: The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 authorized the USDA as the lending agency with responsibility for developing a program for rural electrification with preference given to nonprofit and cooperative associations and public bodies. With the USDA’s help, rural electric cooperatives have obtained financing to construct electric generating plants and transmission and distribution lines to provide initial and continued reliable electric service to rural America.

Electronic commerce: See E-commerce.

Electronic document(s): A document that is generated, sent, received, or stored by electronic, optical, or similar means, including electronic data interchange, electronic mail, telegram, telex, or telecopy.

Electronic government: A worldwide effort to transform traditional paper-based and face-to-face government services to internet-based services that are customer-focused, cost effective, and easy to use. In the U.S., the effort is focused on more than just putting forms on-line and includes making government information, accountability, and operations more accessible. Also E Government; egovernment; eGovernment; e-government. See Customer Statement, E Government Act of 2002, and Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA).

Electronic identification (EID): An identification method that utilizes electronic technology, including, but not limited to, bar codes, 2-D symbology, and radio frequency.

Electronic warehouse receipt (EWR): warehouse receipt that is authorized by the Farm Service Agency to be issued or transmitted under the U.S. Warehouse Act, as amended, in the form of an electronic document.

Elephant Grass: A tall, perennial grass native to the tropical grasslands of Africa. It has a very high productivity and is useful as both a forage grass for livestock and as a biofuel energy crop.

Elevator(s): Typically, a commercial grain storage facility and market that handles grain by mechanical means. An elevator receives, handles, stores, cleans, dries, and ships a bulk, raw agricultural commodity. The agricultural commodity leaves the facility in the same form as received. See Commercial elevator(s), Country elevator(s), and Terminal elevator(s).

Eleven contiguous Western states: Under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. See Sixteen contiguous Western States.

ELG: Effluent limitations guideline

Eligible acres (acreage): (1) See Payment acres; acreage. (2) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 2101), for the Conservation Reserve Program, a wetland, including a converted wetland, and buffer acreage.

Eligible commodity(ies): (1) For some USDA programs, barley, canola, corn, upland cotton, extra-long staple cotton, crambe, flaxseed, mohair, mustard seed, oats, rapeseed, rice, safflower, grain sorghum, soybeans, sunflowerseed, and wheat. (2) Under the Food for Progress Program, an agricultural commodity, or product of an agricultural commodity, in Commodity Credit Corporation inventory or purchased by the CCC through commercial purchases for the Food for Progress Program. See Eligible production, and Loan commodity(ies).

Eligible conservation practices: As determined by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, land management, vegetative, and structural practices eligible for a conservation payment under a conservation security contract. Such practices should be the lowest cost alternatives, to the maximum extent practicable. See Conservation practice(s), and Conservation Security Program (CSP).

Eligible cropland: Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 111), for purposes of production flexibility contracts, cropland that had contract acreage attributable to the land and was (a) enrolled in an acreage reduction program for acontract commodity or was considered planted for at least one crop year from 1991 through 1995; or (b) enrolled in a Conservation Reserve Program contract that expired or was terminated on or after January 1, 1995; or (c) released by the USDA from a CRP contract beginning on January 1, 1995, and ending August 1, 1996. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 changed to the concept of base acres and payment acres for covered commodities. See Eligible production.

Eligible farm(s): Under former farm bill programs, one with an effective allotment or crop acreage base established under a farm commodity program. For the various farm commodity programs, specific eligibility requirements were specified for programparticipation.

Eligible land: (1) Under the Conservation Security Program, private agricultural land (including cropland, grassland, prairie land, improved pasture land, and rangeland), land under the jurisdiction of an Indian tribe, and forest land that is an incidental part of anagricultural operation shall be eligible for enrollment. (2) Under the Farmland Protection Program, land on a farm or ranch that has prime, unique, or other productive soil; or contains historical or archaeological resources. Such land must also be subject to a pending offer for purchase from an eligible entity. Eligible land includes cropland, rangeland, grassland, pasture land, and forest land that is an incidental part of an agricultural operation. (3) Under the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, cropland, rangeland, pasture land, nonindustrial private forest land, and agricultural land that poses a serious threat to soil, air, water, or related resources. (4) Under the Grassland Reserve Program, private land that is grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland, or land historically dominated by such, that has the potential to serve as habitat for animal or plant populations of significant ecological value, if the land is retained in its current use or restored to a natural condition.

Eligible oilseed acreage: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1101(a)(2)), for purposes of determining the acreage of oilseeds eligible for calculating direct payments and counter-cyclical payments, the acreage planted to each oilseed from the 1998 through 2001 crop years and any acreage of each oilseed a producer was prevented from planting during the same time period. However, the total acreage for all oilseeds for a crop year in the above calculation may not exceed the difference between the total base acreage for all covered commodities and the total contract acreage for 2002.

Eligible orchardist: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10201), a person that produces annual crops from trees for commercial purposes.

Eligible peanut quota holder: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1309(f)), a producer that owns a farm that would be eligible for a permanent peanut quota under former farm bill programs. See Compensation for loss of quota asset value (peanuts).

Eligible pesticide chemical residue: Residue that is a nonthreshold substance for which an appropriate quantitative risk assessment for the lifetime risk of the nonthreshold effect has been determined, and if there are also threshold effects associated with the chemical, theEnvironmental Protection Agency is able to identify a level at which the residue will not cause any known or anticipated harm to human health, and that the level of aggregate exposure is safe. For reregistration purposes, if the existing tolerancefor a pesticide chemical exceeds the new certainty of no reasonable harm standard, the EPA may allow higher tolerances if (a) the pesticide chemical protects consumers from adverse effects that would create a higher risk than that from exposure to the residue, or (b) use of the pesticide chemical is necessary to avoid a significant disruption in domestic production of an adequate, wholesome, and economical food supply. Even if one of these apply, the yearly risk can be no more than ten times the reasonable certainty of no harm standard, and the lifetime risk can be no greater than twice the reasonable certainty of no harm standard.

Eligible practice(s): Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 2301), for Environmental Quality Incentives Program purposes, a structural practice eligible for cost-share assistance, and/or a land management practice or a developedcomprehensive nutrient management plan eligible to receive incentive payments.

Eligible producer(s): producer who has become eligible for certain government benefits by complying with farm program or other government program requirements.

Eligible production: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1201), for marketing assistance loans, any quantity of loan commodities produced on a farm.

Eligible tobacco: Under the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002, fire-cured tobacco types 22 and 23, dark air-cured tobacco types 35 and 36, and Virginia sun-cured tobacco type 37.

Eligible trade organization: In marketing promotion, (a) a U.S. or regional agricultural trade organization that promotes but does not directly profit from specific sales of agricultural commodities, (b) a cooperative organization or state agency that promotes the sale ofagricultural commodities, (c) a private organization that contributes significantly to U.S. export market development, or (d) a tribal or intertribal organization that promotes the export and sale of one or more Native American agricultural products. See Foreign Market Development Program (Cooperator Program) (FMD) (FMDCP).

Eligible watersheds: Under the Conservation Reserve Program, watershed areas with actual and significant adverse water quality or habitat impacts related to agricultural production activities.

Eligible; eligibility: Meeting the requirements for participation or inclusion in a federal or state program; qualified to participate in a government program. See Eligible farm(s) and Eligible producer(s).

Elisa tests: Tests for the presence of aflatoxin, vomitoxin, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin based on the coupling reaction between a specific mycotoxin and those antibodies specific for those mycotoxins.

Elongation: (1) The act of polar expansion or increase in length following cell division that occurs in roots, fibers, flower buds, etc. (2) A cotton fiber quality measurement obtained with a stelometer that gives an estimate of the percent of elongation, or stretch, at the point of break of a bundle of fibers between two clamps.

ELS: Extra-long staple cotton

ELS cotton: See Extra-long staple (ELS) cotton.

EM: Emergency loans

Embargo(es): A government-ordered prohibition of trade that restricts either all trade or only that of selected goods and services with another country. Such limitations may be applied by the embargoing country against its own nationals or in concert with other countries against a third country.

Embryo transfer: Removing fertilized ova (embryos) from one cow (donor dam) and placing these embryos into other cows (recipient cows), usually accompanied by hormone-induced superovulation of the donor dam. More calves can be obtained from cows of superior breeding value by this technique.

Emergency Agricultural Assistance Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-25): Signed into law August 13, 2001. The Act provided $4,622,240,000 of Commodity Credit Corporation funds to make a market loss assistance payment to owners and producers on farms that are eligible for a final payment for fiscal year 2001 under a production flexibility contract for the farms under the Agriculture Market Transition Act. The Act also provided supplemental payments for oilseed, peanuts, tobacco, wool and mohair, and cottonseed; made grants to the states to promotespeciality crop production; and increased the payment limitation of loan deficiency payments and marketing loan gains to $150,000 for the 2001 crop.

Emergency and Disaster Assistance for Producers: Title VIII of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000, which provided disaster relief and compensation for lost sales and low prices. The Act included $5.544 billion in direct payments to grain and cotton producers; $1.2 billion in direct disaster payments; $475 million to soybean and other oilseed crop producers; $400 million for additional premium subsidies to encourage producers to purchase crop insurance in 2000; $328 million in direct payments to tobacco producers; $200 million in livestock assistance; $125 million in dairy income assistance; $201 million in incentive payments for U.S. exporters and processors to purchase domestic cotton; $42 million for peanut growers; and the suspension of the sugar marketing assessment, which would save the industry $42 million. See Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000.

Emergency and Imminent Community Water Assistance Program: Authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Title XXIII), reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 6009), and formerly known as the Emergency Community Water Assistance Program, the Rural Utilities Service grant program aids rural residents who have experienced significant declines in quantity or quality of water to obtain adequate quantities of water that meet the standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Theprogram allows grants to forestall imminent declines in water quality and quantity, as well as to meet emergency needs of water systems. Grants can be made in rural areas and cities or towns with a population not in excess of 10,000 and a median household income of 100 percent of a state’s non-metropolitan median household income. Grants may be made for 100 percent of project costs. The maximum grant is $500,000 when a significant or imminent decline in quantity or quality of water occurred within two years, or $150,000 to make emergency repairs and replace facilities on existing systems.

Emergency and temporary storage: Due to a shortage of available grain elevator space, the storage of harvested wheat and feed grains, in good storable condition in such practices as ground piles, to be regulated by the Commodity Credit Corporation. Temporary storage is generally covered storage of excess grain production in piles on concrete or asphalt slabs with rigid self-supporting sidewalls. Proper aeration is required. Emergency storage is generally short-term, uncovered, and susceptible to fermentation and other damage. See Ground pile(s).

Emergency Boll Weevil (direct) loans: See Boll Weevil Eradication Loan Program.

Emergency Community Water Assistance grants: See Emergency and Imminent Community Water Assistance Program.

Emergency compensation payments: See Findley loan rate.

Emergency Conservation Program (ECP): Authorized by Title IV of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1978, a program administered by the Farm Service Agency that provides emergency funds for cost-sharing with farmers and ranchers for the cost of (a) restoring farmland that has been seriously damaged by natural disasters to productive use, or (b) carrying out emergency water conservation measures during periods of severe drought. ECP assistance is available only to help solve new conservation problems caused by natural disasters that impair and endanger the land or its productive capacity. The damage must be unusual (with the exception of wind erosion), not likely to recur frequently in the same area, and so costly to repair that federal assistance is needed to return the land to productive agricultural use. Assistance is based on the type and extent of the damage.

Emergency disaster loans: Emergency loans for actual losses made in designated (and contiguous) counties where property damage and severe production losses have occurred as a direct result of a natural disaster. Such loans are made to repair, restore, or replace damaged or destroyed property, supplies, or products, and to compensate for lost income in order to restore the farming operation to its approximately equivalent earning capacity prior to the disaster.

Emergency Farm Financial Relief Act (P.L. 105-228): Signed into law August 12, 1998. The Act allowed Agricultural Market Transition Act contract holders to receive all of their FY1999 payments ahead of schedule, in October 1998.

Emergency Feed Assistance Program (EFAP): program that provided for the sale of grain owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation at 75 percent of the basic loan rate to livestock producers whose feed harvest suffered because of drought or excess moisture. The purpose of theprogram was to avoid widespread liquidation or undue culling of livestock due to flood, drought, fire, hurricane, storm, tornado, earthquake, disease, insect infestation, or other catastrophe. Eligible livestock producers had to have insufficient feedavailable to preserve and maintain their breeding livestock. The Secretary of Agriculture had to declare a county a natural disaster area before this program could be implemented in that county. The program was suspended in FY1996 and reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10104). Also Feed Cost-Sharing Program, and Livestock Feed Program. See Disaster Reserve Assistance Program (DRAP).

Emergency Feed Grain Donation Program (EFGDP): program designed to provide feed to livestock in danger of perishing due to severe winter storms. EFGDP assistance could be in the form of donated Commodity Credit Corporation inventory, donated hay, or direct cost-share payments. Direct payments could go towards plowing or snow removal or towards 100 percent reimbursement of feed purchases.

Emergency Feed Grain Program of 1961: Signed into law March 22, 1961. Also known as the Feed Grain Adjustment Act. It included a voluntary acreage reduction program for corn and grain sorghum, and authorized the first use of payment in kind.

Emergency Feed Program (EFP): A federal cost-sharing program, administered by the Farm Service Agency, to assist livestock owners who had been severely affected by natural disaster. The USDA would cost-share the cost of feed purchased during an emergency because of substantial loss of feed production. The Secretary of Agriculture had to make a disaster declaration. The program was suspended in FY1996. See Disaster Reserve Assistance Program (DRAP).

Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 (P.L. 98-92): Signed into law September 2, 1983. Amended the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983. See Emergency Food Assistance Program, The (TEFAP).

Emergency Food Assistance Program, The (TEFAP): Begun as a special dairy distribution program in 1981, and first authorized as the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) in 1983. The Emergency Food Assistance Program provides commodities, owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation, to states in amounts relative to the number of unemployed and needy persons. Administrative funds for operating the program are also provided. The food is distributed by charitable organizations to eligible recipients.Commodities high in nutrient value that are easily storable were made available by the passage of the Hunger Prevention Act of 1988, even if such commodities are not made available under farm program authorities. The program was reauthorized until 2007 by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 4126).

Emergency haying and grazing assistance: Emergency haying and grazing of Conservation Reserve Program acreage may be made available in areas suffering weather-related natural disaster. If approved, harvesting of hay and livestock grazing is allowed on cropland that has been removed from production of annual program crops and devoted to long-term conserving-use cover.

Emergency Livestock Feed Assistance Act of 1988 ( 7 U.S.C. §§ 1471-1471j): Title I of the Disaster Assistance Act of 1988 that directed the USDA to provide emergency feed assistance in any state, county, or area where the USDA determined disease, weather, or natural disaster created a livestock or dairying emergency. See Disaster Assistance Act of 1988, and Emergency Feed Assistance Program (EFAP).

Emergency Livestock Feed Assistance Program: See Emergency Feed Assistance Program (EFAP).

Emergency Loans for Seed Producers program: An Farm Service Agency program, authorized by the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000, to provide no-interest loans to producers of the 1999 crop of grass, forage, vegetable, and sorghum seed who did not receive payments from AgriBiotech, one of the largest turf, forage, and alfalfa seed companies in the U.S., as a result of bankruptcy proceedings. Eligible applicants (a) had to have filed a timely proof of claim in the bankruptcy proceedings; (b) could receive up to 65 percent of the value of the proof of claim against AgriBiotech, minus any proceeds received for seed sold; and (c) could get the loans interest-free for 18 months, or until the final distribution of the bankruptcy, whichever came first. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10103) extended the loan term to 36 months.

Emergency loans; emergency loan assistance (EM): USDA actual loss, low-interest loans made in a county declared a disaster area or a contiguous county where a natural disaster has caused a general need for agricultural credit that cannot be met for limited periods of time by privatecooperatives or other commercial sources, including the Farm Service Agency. Such loans are targeted to family-sized producers seeking economic recovery of their farming operations. Eligible producers must have suffered a qualifying loss of essential physical property, or a production loss of at least 30 percent in any essential farm or ranch enterprise. Qualifying physical losses include loss or damage of buildings, machinery, fences, orchard trees, and livestock used for breeding. The EM loan limit is 100 percent of actual production losses or actual physical losses. The maximum indebtedness under this program is $500,000. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 5201), loans can be made in Secretarial-declared areas under plant or animal quarantines.

Emergency storage: See Emergency and temporary storage.

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, FY1999 (P.L. 106-31): Signed into law May 21, 1999. The Act provided additional funding for emergency grants to assist low-income migrant farm workers and seasonal agricultural workers, the Emergency Conservation Program, a livestock indemnity program, theSmall Hog Operation Payment Program, the Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations, and rural housing grants. It authorized the use, up to 15 percent, of specified reserve funds to provide assistance to certain producers who incurred losses to a commodity due to disasters in any crop year beginning with the 1994 crop year.

Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP): Authorized by the Flood Control Act of May 17, 1950 (P.L. 81-516) and Title IV of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1978, the NRCS provides financial and technical assistance to reduce hazards to life and property caused by sudden damage towatersheds by flood, fire, drought, and other natural causes. Such damage can increase the threat to life and property from flooding, erosion, and sediment discharge. Under the program, the NRCS provides up to a 75 percent cost-share to restore the natural function of a watershed. The community or local sponsor provides the balance, which can be in the form of in-kind services. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 382) also authorized the purchase of floodplain easements.

Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP): Authorized by the Flood Control Act of May 17, 1950 (P.L. 81-516), and Title IV of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1978, the Natural Resources Conservation Service provides financial and technical assistance to reduce hazards to life and property caused by sudden damage to watersheds by flood, fire, drought, and other natural causes. Such damage can increase the threat to life and property from flooding, erosion, and sediment discharge. Under the program, the NRCS provides up to a 75 percent cost-share to restore the natural function of a watershed. The community or local sponsor provides the balance, which can be in the form of in-kind services. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 382) also authorized the purchase of floodplain easements.

Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP): Authorized by the Flood Control Act of May 17, 1950 (P.L. 81-516) and Title IV of the Agricultural Credit Act of 1978, the NRCS provides financial and technical assistance to reduce hazards to life and property caused by sudden damage towatersheds by flood, fire, drought, and other natural causes. Such damage can increase the threat to life and property from flooding, erosion, and sediment discharge. Under the program, the NRCS provides up to a 75 percent cost-share to restore the natural function of a watershed. The community or local sponsor provides the balance, which can be in the form of in-kind services. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 382) also authorized the purchase of floodplain easements.

Emergency Wetlands Reserve Program (EWRP): As a result of the 1993 floods in the Midwest, the USDA initiated a recovery effort targeted to damaged cropland that was protected by levees.

Emerging market(s): Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3014), foreign countries (a) taking steps toward building market-oriented economies with an emphasis on the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors, and (b) that have the potential to provide a viable and significant market for U.S. agricultural commodities or products.

Emerging Markets (Democracies) program: First authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Sec. 1542(a)), amended by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 277) and extended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3203); the program is targeted towards countries taking steps toward market-oriented economies through the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors. The Emerging Markets Program provides technical assistance and related activities in the emerging market aimed at enhancing food and rural business systems. The ultimate purpose of the program is to develop, maintain, or expand markets for U.S. agricultural exports.

Emerging plant pests: Significant new or potential pest and disease threats to U.S. agriculture, including the Asian longhorn beetle, pine shoot beetle, Japanese beetle, citrus canker, and West Nile virus.

Eminent domain (provision) (pool): tobacco allotment holder displaced by eminent domain has three years to acquire new farmland on which to reestablish the operation. Such allotment shall be placed in an allotment pool, and only be available during this period for use in providing allotments for other farms owned by the holder so displaced. During this period, such allotments shall be considered to have been fully planted.

Emissions: Waste substances released into the air or water. See Effluent.

Emmer: grain of Near Eastern origin that is similar to einkorn. Production practices for emmer are similar to that for oats. It performs well in low-moisture environments. Emmer is considered a covered wheat.

Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC): The grant program authorized by Title XIII of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (Round I); Title IX, subtitle F of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P. L. 105-34) (Round II empowerment zones); the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (Sec. 766) (Round IIS Enterprise Communities); and the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 (Round III Empowerment Zones). The program is designed to afford communities real opportunities for growth and revitalization. The framework of the program is embodied in four key principles: (a) economic opportunity, (b) sustainable community development, (c) community-based partnerships, and (d) strategic vision for change. Successful applicants receive block grants (except Round III Empowerment Zones), tax benefits, and authority to issue tax-exempt private activity bonds, with zones receiving a higher level of benefits. Zones also receive wage credits. See Champion Communities, EZ/EC eligibility, Renewal Communities (RC), Round I Empowerment Zones (rural), Round I Enterprise Communities (rural), and Round II Rural Empowerment Zones.

Empowerment Zone(s)(EZ): See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Emulsifiable concentrates (EC): Many pesticide concentrates in their pure form will not dissolve and mix with water. Emulsifiable concentrates are concentrated oil solutions of insecticides with emulsifiers added to them. Emulsifiers are detergent-like materials that make it possible for the millions of insecticide oil droplets to be suspended (or mixed) in water to form an emulsion.

Enabling legislation: See Authorization(s); authorize(d)(s); authority(ies).

End-use certificate program: The Farm Service Agency monitors Canadian wheat imports under end-use certificates that track how the imports are consumed. Congress enacted the program in 1995 as a result of the passage of North American Free Trade Agreementlegislation to ensure that foreign wheat does not benefit from U.S. export programs. Under the program, importers of Canadian wheat, regardless of ultimate use, must complete the certificate. Transactions subsequent to entry must be reported, and all purchasers must continue to report any consumption.

End-use quality(ies): The measure of the attributes of grains and oilseeds, such as the protein quality for wheat and extractable starch for corn, to meet the requirements for use by millers, processors, bakers, and other end-users.

Endangered species: Any living organism threatened with extinction by human or natural environmental changes.

Endangered Species Act (ESA) (P.L. 93-205) (16 U.S.C. §§ 1531 et seq.; 7 U.S.C. § 136): Signed into law December 28,1973. The Act provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. The Fish and Wildlife Service maintains the list of 632 endangered species (326 are plants) and 190 threatened species (78 are plants). Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees. Anyone can petition FWS to include a species on this list. The law prohibits any action, administrative or real, that results in a taking of a listed species, or adversely affects habitat. Likewise, import, export, interstate, and foreign commerce of listed species are all prohibited.

Endocrine disruptor:”An exogenous substance that changes endocrine function and causes adverse effects at the developmental, behavioral, and reproductive level of the organism, its progeny, and subpopulations of organisms.

Endocrine system: A mechanism by which a body’s development and functions are controlled and coordinated. Chemical substances, hormones, are released into the bloodstream by specialized organs called endocrine glands. Well-known hormones include adrenaline and insulin.

Endogenous: A chemical substance formed inside the body; for example, a hormone.

Endophyte(s): plant parasite. In endophyte-infected fescue grass, the toxin released by the endophyte can cause weight gain and reproductive problems for grazing cattle. Endophytes in fescue are credited with giving fescue its drought tolerance and the ability to resist diseases and nematodes.

Endosperm: Nutritive tissue that in seeds often provides food for the embryo during germination and early development.

Endotoxin(s): Toxins released from some bacteria as they are being ingested.

Endowment for 1994 Institutions: See Native American Institutions Endowment Fund.

Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Program: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 9005), a program to assist farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses in becoming more energy efficient and in using renewable energy technology and resources.

Energy crop(s): (1) Crops planted specifically for their fuel use including both food and nonfood crops. (2) Herbaceous or woody biomass grown to produce some form of energy. Energy may be generated through direct combustion or gasification of the crops to create electricity, or through the creation of liquid fuels such as ethanol.

Energy crops: Herbaceous or woody biomass grown to produce some form of energy. Energy may be generated through direct combustion or gasification of the crops to create electricity, or through the creation of liquid fuels such as ethanol.

Energy supplements: Feedstuffs that contain less than 20 percent crude protein. These include grain and grain byproducts, and animal fat or vegetable oil.

Engineer(ed)(ing): See Genetic engineering; genetically engineered.

Enhanced payment(s): Under the Conservation Security Program, discretionary additional payments to producers that (a) implement or maintain multiple conservation practices that exceed minimum requirements for the applicable tier of participation (including practices that involve a change in land use, such as resource conserving crop rotation, managed rotational grazing, or conservation buffer practices); (b) address local conservation priorities in addition to resources of concern for the agricultural operation; (c) participate in an on-farm conservation research, demonstration, or pilot project; (d) participate in a watershed or regional resource conservation plan that involves at least 75 percent of producers in a targeted area; or (e) carry out assessment and evaluation activities relating to practices included in a conservation security plan. See Conservation security contract(s), and Conservation security plan(s).

Enhancement of service to broadband service in rural areas: See Rural Broadband Loan and Loan Guarantee Program.

Enrichment: (1) See Fortification; food fortification; fortified. (2) The restoration of vitamins and minerals lost during processing.

Enroll(ed)(ing)(ment)(ments): See Sign(ing)(ed)-up.

Ensile(d)(ing): To convert to silage.

Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC): A disease of catfish caused by the gram-negative bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. This disease is the most serious disease faced by commercial catfish producers.

Enterprise Community(ies) (EC): See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

Enterprise unit(s): For crop insurance purposes, the combining of all the acres of a single crop, within a county in which the policy holder has a financial interest, into a single unit, regardless of whether they are owned or rented, or how many landlords are involved. See Basic unit(s), Insurance unit(s), Optional unit(s), and Whole farm unit(s).

Entitlement foods: Foods selected by states for their schools from a list of various commodities purchased by USDA and offered under the child nutrition programs. The list includes fresh, canned, and frozen fruits and vegetables; dry beans; meat, poultry, and fish; fruit juices; vegetable shortening; egg products; tree nuts; peanut products; vegetable oil; and flour and other grain products. See Bonus foods; bonus commodities.

Entitlement grant(s): Mandatory open-ended grants. See Grant(s).

Entitlement(s): (1) In connection with farm program benefits, the belief that payments are assured if producers comply with all program requirements. In fact, it is likely that payments are only assured so long as the Commodity Credit Corporation has available funds. (2) A program in which the federal government is legally obligated to make payments or provide aid to any person who meets the legal criteria for eligibility. (3) See Mandatory spending (agriculture).

Entity(ies): For payment limitation purposes, a legal business arrangement deemed to be a separate person in determining eligibility for receipt of payments such as counter-cyclical payments. See Three-entity rule.

Entomologist: One who studies insects.

Entrepot: An intermediary facility where trade commodities are temporarily stored for distribution within the country or for re-export.

Entrepot trade: The import and export of trade commodities without the further processing of the commodities.

Environmental assessment (EA): A concise public document required by the National Environmental Policy Act and drafted by a federal agency to (a) briefly provide enough evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact, or (b) facilitate preparation of an EIS when one is needed.

Environmental audit: The process of investigating the environmental status and history of a property to determine if it complies with applicable environmental laws, and whether it contains any sources of potential environmental liability.

Environmental Benefits Index (EBI): Offers for Conservation Reserve Program contracts are ranked according to the EBI. The Natural Resources Conservation Service collects data for each of the EBI factors based upon the relative environmental benefits for the land offered. Each eligible offer is ranked in comparison to all others and selections made from that ranking.

Environmental Benefits Index factors: The EBI factors include (a) wildlife habitat benefits resulting from covers on contract acreage; (b) water-quality benefits from reduced erosion, agricultural runoff, and leaching; (c) on-farm benefits of reduced erosion; (d) likely long-term benefits of reduced erosion; (e) air-quality benefits from reduced wind erosion; (f) benefits of enrollment in conservation priority areas where enrollment would contribute to the improvement of identified adverse water quality, wildlife habitat, or air quality; and (g) cost.

Environmental Conservation Acreage Reserve Program (ECARP): See Comprehensive Conservation Enhancement Program (CCEP).

Environmental Easement Program (EnEP; EEP): program, authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, designed to obtain easements for long-term protection of environmentally sensitive lands. Participating producers were required to implement approved natural resource management plans in exchange for a maximum of $250,000 for the easement, or if less, the value of the land without an easement. Annual payments, not to exceed $50,000 per year, could be paid for up to ten years. The EnEP also allowed for up to 100 percent federal cost-sharing to implement the management plan. The program was never implemented and was not reauthorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.

Environmental evaluation (EE): Part of a planning process in which the potential long-term and short-term impacts of an action on people, their physical or social surroundings, and nature are evaluated and alternative actions explored.

Environmental horticulture: See Floriculture and environmental horticulture crops.

Environmental impact statement (EIS): An analytical document that details potential impacts on the human environment from a particular course of action and its possible alternatives. It is required of federal agencies by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). An EIS is prepared for use by decision makers to weigh the environmental consequences of a potential decision.

Environmental physiologist: One who studies the animal environment as it relates to metabolism and reproduction.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The federal agency created in 1970 that is responsible for working with state and local governments to control and prevent water, air, and drinking water pollution, including regulation of solid and hazardous waste, pesticides, and toxic and radioactive substances. The EPA regulates pesticides and establishes pesticide-tolerance levels.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP): Authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 334), EQIP combined the functions of the Agricultural Conservation Program, the Water Quality Incentives Program, the Great Plains Conservation Program, and the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control program into a single program designed to provide financial, educational, and technical assistance to farmers and ranchers faced with significant natural resource concerns. Under EQIP, the USDA can provide cost-share assistance to family-sized farms and ranches for the cost of implementing certain environmental conservation practices, such as establishing filter strips, grassed waterways, and manure-management facilities; capping abandoned wells; and enhancing wildlife habitat. The USDA can also provide incentive payments to encourage certain land management practices. Assistance will be targeted to priority areas such as watersheds or other environmentally sensitive regions in each state. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 2301) authorizes funding through FY2007, continues 75 percent cost sharing, allows a 90 percent cost-share rate if a producer is a limited-resource farmer or beginning farmer or rancher, increases the targeted funding for livestock producers to 60 percent of annual program funding, amends the contract length to one to ten years, and removes the annual payment limitation and replaces it with an aggregate limitation of $450,000 for the sum of the years FY2002 through FY2007.

Enzymatic hydrolysis: The use of hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase) to convert cellulose in biomass to sugars prior to fermentation.

Enzymes: Proteins used as biological catalystsCellulase enzymes are used to convert cellulose in biomass to sugars prior to fermentation.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

EPD: Expected progeny differences

Ephemeral erosion: See Erosion.

Ephemeral streams: Seasonally flowing or intermittent streams that have channels that are above the water table at all times. They carry water only during and immediately after rain or snow melt.

EPIA: Egg Products Inspection Act

Epidemiology: The study of distribution and determinants of diseases or other health outcomes in human and animal populations. It seeks to expose potential associations between disease aspects of health and diet, lifestyle, habits, or other factors within populations.

Epidemiology (epidemiological): The study of distribution and determinants of diseases or other health outcomes in human and animal populations. It seeks to expose potential associations between disease aspects of health and diet, lifestyle, habits, or other factors within populations.

Epizootic: The wide outbreak of disease affecting animals.

EPSCoR: See Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research (EPSCoR).

EQIP: Environmental Quality Incentives Program

Equalization pool: With a classified pricing system, such as that used in state and federal milk marketing orders, processors pay for milk at different prices for each use category. Producers are paid a weighted average, or blend price, for all uses of milk in a particular order or market. Therefore, even though one producer’s product may be bottled and another’s made into cheese, they each are paid the same uniform price. Processors pay into or draw out of the pool on the basis of their utilization of milk relative to average market utilization. Producers participating in the pool receive the identical uniform blend prices, with adjustments for butterfat content and location. In markets with multiple-component pricing, adjustments are also made forprotein or solids-not-fat content.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA): A serious and often fatal disease of horses that is spread by blood-sucking flies. If an affected horse is bitten by such a fly, it can then transmit the virus to another nearby horse. Horses may act as a reservoir for other flies to bite, and thus spread the virus to many other horses. The signs of the disease are fever, depression, weight loss, anemia, and dependent edema (stocking up).

Equity in Educational Land Grant Status Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-382): Signed into law October 20, 1994. The Act, Title V, Part A, of the Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994, amended by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 and reauthorized and amended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Secs. 7126-7128 and 7201), established the1994 land grant institutions. See 1994 Land grant colleges (institutions) and Tribal college(s) and university(ies).

Equivalent bushel concept (EBC): The concept of adjusting the quantity (rather than price) of grain, to compensate for differences in moisture by the use of a shrink factor by grain buyers, to provide an estimate of the equivalent bushels at any given base moisture.

Ergot: A fungal disease of grain.

Erodibility: See Soil erodibility.

Erodibility (Erosion) Index (EI): A value that combines a soil’s inherent erodibility with its susceptibility to damage by erosion. Soil type, amount of rainfall and runoff, and slope length and steepness determine a soil’s inherent erodibility. The susceptibility of a soil to erosiondamage is inversely related to the depth of the top soil and to a soil’s natural rate of formation. Cropland fields containing primarily soil with an Erodibility Index of eight or greater may be enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program. Croplandwith an Erodibility Index of eight or greater is also subject to the conservation compliance provisions. See Soil erodibility (factor) (K).

Erosion: The process by which water or wind moves soil. Solid material is loosened and moved from one location to another. Types of erosion are (a) sheet – a general washing away of a thin uniform sheet of soil, caused by rainfall or irrigation runoff; (b) gully – channels or incisions cut by concentrated water runoff after heavy rains; (c) ephemeral – a water-worn, short-lived, or seasonal incision, wider, deeper and longer than a rill, but shallower and smaller than a gully; (d) wind – the carrying away of dust and sediment by wind in areas of high prevailing winds or low annual rainfall; and (e) rill – a small channel eroded into the soil surface by runoff.

ERS: Economic Research Service

ES: Extension Service

ESA: Endangered Species Act

ESC: Enteric Septicemia of Catfish

Escape: An exotic plant that has spread from cultivation and grows successfully in the wild.

Escape clause: A provision in a bilateral or multilateral agreement permitting a signatory nation to suspend tariff or other concessions when increased imports cause or threaten to cause serious injury to the producers of competitive domestic goods.

ESCOP: Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy (NASULGC)

ESP: Experimental Stewardship Program

Established yield(s): See Program yield(s).

Estimated breeding value (EBV); An estimate of an animal’s true breeding value for a trait based on the performance of the individual and close relatives for that trait. EBV is a systematic way of combining available performance information on the individual and sibs and theprogeny of the individual. have replaced EBVs in most breed associations.

Estimated deficiency payment(s): The prediction by the USDA, for program purposes, of the amount of the total deficiency payment for each program crop for the upcoming crop year. Deficiency payments were eliminated by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, but counter-cyclical payments were authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. See 0/85, and 50/85.

Estrous cycle: The heat cycle from one heat period (or estrous period) to the next. Also heat; heat cycle.

Estrus: The period when the female is receptive for mating to the male. Also heat; heat cycle.

etain(s): Patronage refunds, allocated to members in the form of “written notices,” that are retained by the cooperative for equity funding.

Ethanol: An alcohol-based alternative fuel that may be produced chemically from ethylene or biologically from an agricultural feedstock (such as corn, sugarcane, sugar beets, wheat, barley, grasses, or wood) and may be blended with gasoline to enhance octane, reduce automotive exhaust pollution, and reduce reliance on petroleum-based fuels. Also Ethyl alcohol and Grain alcohol.

Ethanol: An alcohol fuel that may be produced from an agricultural foodstock (such as corn, sugarcane, or wood) and may be blended with gasoline to enhance octane, reduce automotive exhaust pollution, and reduce reliance on petroleum-based fuels.

Ethanol: An alcohol-based alternative fuel that may be produced chemically from ethylene or biologically from an agricultural feedstock (such as corn, sugarcane, sugar beets, wheat, barley, grasses, or wood) and may be blended with gasoline to enhance octane, reduce automotive exhaust pollution, and reduce reliance on petroleum-based fuels. Also Ethyl alcohol and Grain alcohol.

Ethyl alcohol: See Ethanol.

EU: European Union

EUP: Experimental use permits

European (Economic) Community (EC): An organization established by the Treaty of Rome in 1957 and also known as the European Economic Community and the Common Market. Originally composed of the six European nations of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, it has expanded in four waves to 15 nations and is preparing for the accession of 13 eastern and southern European countries. The EC attempted to unify and integrate member economies by establishing a customs union and common economic policies, including the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Member nations included the original six nations plus Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and the United Kingdom. Also European Union (EU).

European Union (EU): Following adoption of the 1993 Maastricht Treaty, the successor entity to the European Community.

Eutrophic: Usually refers to a nutrient-enriched, highly productive body of water.

Eutrophication: A process by which a water body becomes rich in dissolved nutrients, often leading to algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen, and changes in community composition. Eutrophication occurs naturally, but can be accelerated by human activities, such as fertilizer runoff, that increase nutrient inputs to the water body.

Evans-Allen (formula) funds: See Evans-Allen 1890 Research.

Evans-Allen 1890 Research (7 U.S.C. § 3222(a)): Under the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (Sec. 1445) , Title XIV of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, as amended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7203(a)), research formula funds allocated to 1890 land grant institutions, Tuskegee University, and West Virginia State University at 25% of the Hatch Act funds allocated to the state of the eligible institution. (Tuskegee and Alabama A&M get allocations as though they are in separate states). A non-federal match is required, although the Secretary may waive the match above 50 percent if an institution demonstrates that it is incapable of meeting that requirement. These formula funds are to be used for agricultural research; printing; disseminating the results of such research; administrative planning and direction; purchase and rental of land; and/or the construction, acquisition, alteration, or repair of buildings necessary for conducting agricultural research. See Payments to 1890 Colleges and Tuskegee University.

Evans-Allen funds: Special federal funding to help finance agricultural research at the 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Universities and Tuskegee University.

Evapotranspiration: The loss of all water from a particular area by either evaporation or transpiration.

Even-aged: In a forest, crop, or stand, trees having no, or relatively small, differences in age. By convention, the maximum difference admissible is generally 10 to 20 years; though with rotations of 100 years, differences up to 30 percent of the rotation may be admissible.

Evenflow: The same amount of timber produced annually for an indefinite, extended period of time from a natural forest or other unit of land.

Event(s): See Animal movement event(s).

Ever-Normal Granary: The principle of using stored grain when it is needed, such as during times of drought, and rebuilding grain stocks to a safe level during good production years. Its purpose is to ensure adequacy of supply, as well as to aid in stabilizing farm prices and incomes.

Ewe: A mature female sheep.

EWP: Emergency Watershed Protection

EWR: Electronic warehouse receipt

EWRP: Emergency Wetlands Reserve Program

Ex-Im: Export-Import Bank

Excess base acres: Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1101), when the sum of base acres and eligible oilseeds acreage exceeds the actual cropland acreage for the farm.

Excess manure nutrients: Manure nutrient production that exceeds the capacity of a crop, through land application, to assimilate.

Excess tobacco: For burley tobacco and flue-cured tobacco, the quantity of tobacco marketed above 103 percent of the effective quota.

Exchange rate(s): The price of one currency that is exchanged for another.

Exchange(s): See Futures market(s).

Exchange-of-use grazing agreement(s): An agreement that may be issued to an applicant who owns or controls lands that are unfenced and intermingled with public lands in the same grazing allotment. Use under such an agreement must be in harmony with the management objectives for the grazing allotment and compatible with the existing livestock operations.

Excise tax: A tax levied on the purchases of specific types of goods or services.

Excluded methods: A variety of methods used to genetically modify organisms or influence their growth and development by means that are not possible under natural conditions or processes and are not considered compatible with organic production.

Exclusion programs: The prevention of exotic plant and animal pests and diseases from entering the U.S. through inspections and quarantines. See Agricultural Quarantine Inspection program (AQI).

Exclusive representative in collective bargaining (bargaining association): bargaining association similar to that administered by the National Farmers Organization. Such a bargaining association operates through commodity departments that assist marketing with respect to negotiations and coordination. Bargaining is done by an elected marketing-area bargaining committee which is elected in each county for each commodity. In the case of the NFO, the membership contract specifically provides that the NFO is a “service organization, bargaining for its members who have signed marketing contracts.

Exclusive-agency bargaining (bargaining association): bargaining association by a government agency taking an active role in implementing collective bargaining by producers. Generally, such a bargaining association is established by legislation that (a) defines the bargaining unit, (b) recognizes the bargaining association as representing all producers in the bargaining unit, (c) provides for mediation and arbitration, and (d) enforces a set of rules related to fair bargaining and equity treatment.

Exempt plant (milk): A plant exempt from pricing and pooling provisions of any federal milk marketing order, including (a) a plant that is operated by a governmental agency that has no route disposition or commercial channels, (b) a plant operated by a duly accredited college or university that disposes of fluid milk products only through its own facilities, (c) a plant from which the total route disposition is to individuals or institutions for charitable purposes, or (d) a plant that has a route disposition and packaged sales of fluid milk products to other plants of 150,000 pounds or less during the month.

Exercise(d): In commodity options trading, the action taken by a holder of a call option if he or she wishes to purchase the underlying futures contract, or by the holder of a put option if he or she wishes to sell the underlying futures contract.

Exogenous: A chemical substance formed outside of the body.

Exotic: Not indigenous to a country or region.

Exotic (plant and animal) pest(s): Fungi, insects, weeds, and other pests not indigenous to a country or region.

Exotic (plant) (animal) disease(s): New diseases that, once introduced into a new environment, can explode into epidemic proportions because of the lack of natural control agents, the lack of resistance by host plants and animals, and the lack of knowledge of how to manage the disease outbreak.

Exotic animal(s): For purposes of inspected meat fabrication, any reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, or bison.

Exotic species: species that is not indigenous to a country or region.

Exotic weed(s): An invasive, unwanted non-native plant that may infest large areas or cause economic and ecological damage to an area. See Invasive weed(s), and Noxious weed(s).

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP): Smith-Lever 3(d) program, initiated by the USDA in 1968 and authorized under the NAREPTA (Sec. 1425), that complements the WIC program by providing nutrition education and food preparation training to youth and families. Funds are used to provide low-income families with information to increase nutrition knowledge and to improve nutritional practices. EFNEP funds are distributed to the states and territories on the basis of a formula of persons living at or below 125 percent of the poverty level. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7106) extended authority for the program through FY2007. See Smith-Lever 3(d) (funds).

Expansive soils: Clay soils that swell when they absorb water and shrink when they dry out.

Expected county yield: A yield, used in calculating yield guarantees, that is established for each crop that can be insured using Group Risk Plan insurance. The yield is determined by using historical National Agricultural Statistics Service county average yields, as adjusted by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

Expected price: The expected price used to calculate revenue guarantees for Group Risk Income Plan insurance. Expected prices are averages of settlement prices of Chicago Board of Trade futures contracts during the five business days prior to March 15th.

Expected production: The historic yield multiplied by the number of planted or prevented planting acres of the crop.

Expected progeny difference (EPD): Indicates how the calves from an animal will compare genetically to an average group of animals in the same breed. EPDs are always relative to a reference group, and are expressed as a plus or minus deviation from the norm. An EPD is based on a formula that measures an animal’s genetics and the interaction with the feeding program, weather, pasture conditions, and many other factors that make up the environment. EPDs are more accurate than anything previously available because they account for (a) the genetic value of cows to which a bull is bred, (b) environmental differences affecting contemporary groups, (c) genetic values of other parents in the contemporary group, and (d) genetic trends. See Estimated breeding value (EBV).

Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research (EPSCoR): A state-federal partnership established at the National Science Foundation to stimulate sustainable improvements in R&D competitiveness through the development and utilization of science and technology resources that reside at the state’s major research universities. EPSCoR emphasizes local direction and administration by broad-based statewide governing committees, program accountability at all levels, and nonfederal cost-sharing investments. EPSCoR currently operates in twenty-one states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The states are: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming. EPSCoR attempts to develop nationally competitive R&D infrastructures within participating states by promoting partnerships among state government, universities, and the private sector in strategic research areas with high growth potential. The program is currently administered within seven federal agencies: NSF, National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, NASA, Department of Energy, EPA, and USDA.

Experimental Stewardship Program (ESP): program established by the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 to encourage the development and use of innovative ranching methods that minimize impact on rangeland.

Experimental-use permits (EUP): Environmental Protection Agency permits issued under provisions of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act to allow prospective pesticide registrants to generate information or data necessary to register a pesticide under FIFRA. EUPs may be issued for (a) a pesticide not registered with the EPA, or (b) a registered pesticide for a use not registered with the EPA. A pesticide under an experimental-use permit may not be sold or distributed other than through participants in the approved experimental-use program. It may only be used at the application site of a cooperator in the program, and only in accordance with the terms and conditions of the experimental-use permit. Generally, an EUP is required before conducting large-scale field testing.

Expiration (of a contract); expiration date: The final trading day in a futures contract. Grain contracts exist about 18 months. For options, the expiration date is usually within the month prior to the delivery month of a futures contract.

Export Apple Act (P.L. 106-96): Signed into law November 12, 1999. The Act amended the Export Apple and Pear Act to eliminate references to pears. The new law was supported by both U.S. producers and exporters of pears, because it allows the pear industry to meet the increasing demand for lower-grade pears in foreign countries.

Export Apple and Pear Act (7 U.S.C. §§ 581 et seq.): Signed into law June 10, 1933. An Act that restricted the exporting of U.S.-grown apples and pears that did not meet minimum federal or state quality standards.

Export Credit Guarantee Programs; Export Credit Programs (GSM-102 and GSM-103): Under these programs, the Commodity Credit Corporation, for a fee, guarantees payments due U.S. exporters on deferred-payment contracts when the foreign buyer defaults on the contract. GSM-102, the largest U.S. agricultural export promotion program, was authorized in 1980, and provides for CCC guarantees of repayment of private, short-term credit for up to three years. The Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) was authorized by the Food Security Act of l985, and provides for CCC credit guarantees for up to ten years. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 allowed credit guarantees for high-value products with at least 90 percent U.S. content by weight. Also, the Act required that 35 percent of the credit be available for processed and high-value products by 1999 on a graduated scale. The export credit guarantee programs were reauthorized through 2007 by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3102). Export credit guarantee programs are not subject to Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture reductions. Also GSM-102, and GSM-103. See Supplier Credit Guarantee Program (SCGP).

Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5): Under this program, the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to provide direct financing, on terms not to exceed three years, for the commercial export sale of agricultural commodities from private stocks. There have been no sales under this program since FY1985.

Export credit(s); export credit guarantee(s); export credit program(s): See Dairy Export Incentive Program (DEIP), Export Credit Guarantee Programs; Export Credit Programs (GSM-1O2 and GSM-103), Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5), Facility Guarantee Program (FGP), and Supplier Credit Guarantee Program (SCGP).

Export Enhancement Program (EEP): program initiated in May 1985 under the authority of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978, as amended, to help U.S. exporters expand U.S. agricultural exports, and challenge unfair trade practices by meeting competitors’ prices in subsidizedmarkets. The program was formally authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985. Under the original EEP, exporters were awarded generic commodity certificates redeemable for Commodity Credit Corporation-owned commodities, cash, or in-kind stocks. This enabled the exporters to sell certain commodities to specified countries with the goal of enhancing export sales above that which would have occurred in the absence of the program. Currently, the USDA pays cash to exporters as bonuses, allowing them to sell U.S. agricultural products in targeted countries at prices below the exporters’ costs of acquiring them. Consistent with its export subsidy commitments under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, the U.S. has established annual ceilings by commodity with respect to export quantities and budget outlays. The program was reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3104).

Export Grape and Plum Act (P.L. 86-687) (7 U.S.C. §§ 591 et seq.): Signed into law September 2, 1960. An Act that restricted the exporting of U.S.-grown grapes and plums that did not meet minimum federal or state quality standards.

Export guarantee(s): See Export credit(s); export credit guarantee(s); export credit program(s).

Export house(s): Private grain merchandising firm that handles the physical exporting of U.S. grain.

Export PIK: An export incentive program whereby exporters were awarded generic certificates redeemable for Commodity Credit Corporation-owned commodities, enabling them to sell certain commodities to specified countries at prices below the U.S. market. See Export Enhancement Program (EEP). Export program(s): Government programs that support the export of U.S. agricultural commodities or products. Government export programs include overseas food aid and concessional sales/loans, credit and credit guarantees, export price subsidies, and generic and branded nonprice promotion programs.

Export program(s): Government programs that support the export of agricultural commodities or products. Government export programs include overseas food aid and concessional sales/loans, credit and credit guarantees, export price subsidies, and generic and branded nonprice promotion programs.

Export quota(s): Specific restrictions on the value or volume of exports of specified goods imposed by the government of the exporting country.

Export restitution(s): Direct export subsidy payments used by the European Union to promote exports of agricultural commodities through the refunding of the difference between the domestic market price and the lower export price.

Export sales reporting: The USDA policy, under authority of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, requiring that export sales, involving more than 100,000 metric tons of major grains and oilseeds, shall be reported to the USDA by 3 p.m. Eastern time the following day of the sale. For other commodities, weekly or monthly reports have been required. The requirements are an outgrowth of the unexpected purchases of large amounts of grain by the Soviet Union in 1972 that caused major increases in food costs.

Export subsidy(ies): Special incentives (such as cash payments, tax exemptions, preferential exchange rates, and special contracts) extended by governments to encourage increased foreign sales. These subsidies are most often used when internal prices exceedexport prices. See Subsidy(ies); subsidize(s)(d); subsidizing.

Export(s): Goods and services produced in one country and sold in other countries in exchange for goods and services, gold, foreign exchange, or settlement of debt.

Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank): Chartered in 1934 as an independent agency to finance the export of U.S. goods and services. Ex-Im Bank offers four major export finance support programs: loans, guarantees, working capital guarantees, and insurance.

Exporter Assistance Initiative: The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 3101) amended the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 to require the USDA to maintain a website with information to assist exporters of U.S. commodities.

Extension: Under Sec. 1404(7) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. § 3103), the informal education programs conducted in the states in cooperation with the USDA. See Cooperative Extension Service (CES), and Extension Service (ES).

Extension activities: Educational activities of the Cooperative Extension System, including base programs (Smith-Lever 3(b&c), Payments to 1890 Colleges and Tuskegee University, and D.C. Extension) and national initiatives. The Equity in Education Land GrantStatus Act of 1994 authorized appropriations for extension activities at 1994 land grant colleges. See Base programs (Extension), Cooperative Extension Service (CES), Cooperative Extension System (CES), and National initiatives (Extension).

Extension agent(s): See County Extension agent(s).

Extension Indian Reservation Program (EIRP) (7 U.S.C. § 5930): Smith-Lever 3(d) program that provides funds for 28 programs in 15 states in various Indian reservations and Cooperative Extension Service offices to provide assistance and educational programs in agriculture, community development, and family and societal issues facing Native Americans. The EIRP focuses on agriculture programs and agriculture-related youth programs. It emphasizes training and employment of local people in positions such as program aides, master gardeners, and volunteers. Local advisory committees are involved in determining programs and priorities.

Extension Programs for 1890 Institutions: See 1890 Extension.

Extension Service (ES): The former USDA agency that is now part of the new Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. It was the USDA’s educational agency and one of three partners (along with state and local governments) in the Cooperative Extension Service system. All three shared in financing, planning, and conducting educational programs.

Extensive culture (fish): culture method whereby the culturist has minimal control over the factors that affect the fish. The cultured population is generally at a low density and considered in a more natural system. See Intensive culture (fish) and Integrated culture (fish).

Extensive grazing management: Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labor, resources, or capital.

Externality: A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services such as the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.

Extirpated:: A population that has been depressed to the point that it is barely reproducing. Only a remnant population exists, but it is so low that it will probably never fully recover on its own.

Extra-long staple (ELS) cotton: (1) Cotton having a staple length of 1? inches or more, according to the classification used by the International Cotton Advisory Committee. This cotton is also characterized by fineness and high fiber strength, contributing to finer and strongeryarns needed for thread and higher-valued fabrics. American types of ELS cotton include American Pima and Sea Island cotton. (2) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1001), cotton produced from pure strainvarieties of the Barbadense species or any hybrid thereof, or other similar types (a) having characteristics needed for various end uses for which U.S. upland cotton is not suitable, (b) grown in irrigated cotton-growing regions of the U.S. or other areas designated by the USDA as suitable for the production of the varieties or types, and (c) ginned on a roller-type gin, or if authorized by the USDA, ginned on another type gin for experimental purposes.

Extra-long staple (ELS) cotton program: As authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, there were no restrictions on planting, but ELS cotton was not a contract commodity and was not eligible for loan deficiency payments and market loan repayment. Producers could receive marketing assistance loans. Recourse loans were available on ELS seed cotton. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and similar to the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, producers of extra-long staple cotton can receive marketing assistance loans, but repayment shall be at the loan rate plus interest. ELS cotton is not eligible for LDP and market loan repayment.

Extra-Long Staple Cotton Act of 1983 (P.L. 98-88): Signed into law August 26, 1983. The law eliminated marketing quotas and allotments for extra-long staple cotton, and tied its support to upland cotton through a formula that sets the loan rate at not less than 150 percent of the upland cotton loanlevel.

Extra-Long Staple Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program: program similar to the Step 2 program designed to trigger payments in response to a reduction in other world cotton prices, including Egyptian Giza cotton. Domestic users of extra-long staple cotton produced in the U.S. and exporters of extra-long staple cotton produced in the U.S. that enter into an agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation can participate in the program which was reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1208) through July 31, 2008.

Extraneous matter (cotton): All material in a cotton sample other than fiber and leaf. The degree of extraneous matter, either “light” or “heavy,” is determined by the classer.

Extruded tobacco: Tobacco compressed into a bale, planked on top and bottom with plywood, and wrapped with a synthetic film material.

Extrusion feed; extruded feed: The result of a process that involves the cooking of feed ingredients in the extruder barrel (a jacketed barrel that contains a rotating screw) through a combination of pressure, heat, and friction. The feed ingredients are a mixture of starchy and proteinaceous materials that are moistened to form a “mash.” Moisture is added in the form of steam or injected water to increase the moisture level to approximately 25 percent. The “mash” then enters the extruder. The superheated mixture is then forced through a die located at the end of the extruder barrel.

EZ: Empowerment Zone

EZ/EC: Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program

EZ/EC: Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program

EZ/EC eligibility: Under the EZ/EC grant program, eligible Rural Empowerment Zones and Rural Enterprise Communities must (a) have a maximum population of 30,000; (b) have pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress; (c) not exceed 1,000 square miles in total land area; (d) have demonstrated a poverty rate that is not less than 20 percent in each census tract or census block numbering area (BNA) and 25 percent in 90 percent of the census tracts and BNAs within the nominated area; (d) be located entirely within no more than three contiguous states (if it is located in more than one state, the area must have one continuous boundary; if located in only one state, the area may consist of no more than three noncontiguous parcels; (e) show that each nominated parcel independently meets the two poverty-rate requirements; (f) be located entirely within the jurisdiction of the unit or units of general local government making the nomination; and (g) not include any portion of a central business district as defined in the Census of Retail Trade, unless the poverty rate for each Census tract is at least 35 percent.